Art 19 (1) (d) and Clause (19) (3) declares freedom of assembly as fundamental right. Assembly should satisfy the two basic tests, in order to have the golden protection of part III.
(a) Assembly must be peaceful
(b) It must be without arms.
Like all other freedoms enshrined under Art. 19, freedom of assembly is not an absolute one, and tight whip is maintained over it by introducing clause 3. State is empowered to put reasonable restrictions on the following grounds:
(i) The interest of sovereignty and integrity of India, and
(ii) The interest of public order.