The scope of first aid includes the diagnosis, the treatment and the disposal of the case.
(a) For diagnosis, the first aider must first know how the accident or sudden injury has occurred. This can be got from the victim if he can tell or from witnesses. This is called the history of the case.
The next step in diagnosis is to watch the symptoms like faintness, thirst, pain or shivering.
Then the first aider looks at the signs, which are variations from normal conditions. These may include swelling, congestion, paleness or deformity, which can be very easily observed by the first aider. Signs are the most reliable indications on which diagnosis can be based.
(b) For treatment, the cause of the condition should be immediately removed, with a view to prevent the condition from becoming worse. Special attention should be paid to cases of severe bleeding, shock, unconsciousness and failure of breathing.
(c) For quick disposal, the casualty or the victim should either be examined by the doctor on the spot or, if that is not possible, he should be immediately taken to his home or to a suitable place of shelter or to a hospital, according to circumstances. The members of the victim’s family or his relatives should be informed at once.