What are the Unfavorable Effects of Green Revolution on Agriculture in India?
The green revolution/new agricultural strategy has changed the face of rural areas by raising production and generating more farm income. But it has harmful impact also. Let us explain these impacts in detail.
1. Personal Inequalities:
Technological changes in agriculture have not only promoted the inequalities but it has also widened the existing gulf between rich and poor lots in the rural sector of the economy.
2. Limited Coverage:
The spread of green revolution/new agricultural strategy was restricted to few crops like wheat and rice. Moreover, the share of three Northern states comprising Punjab, Haryana and U.P. in rice production has risen from 10.4 per cent in 1964-65 to 22.52 per cent in 2000-01.
While the states of eastern region (West Bengal, Orissa and Bihar) simply fell down from 38.08 per cent to 28.19 per cent over the same period.
3. Regional Inequalities:
Another harmful impact of new agricultural strategy/green revolution is that it has promoted inequalities among different regions of the country.
In fact the impact of green revolution is limited to only a few regions while other regions are not aware of new agricultural strategy. These regions are Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. The rest of the country remained untouched by this effect.
4. New Technology not readily Available:
The new technology/green revolution requires the knowledge of its application. In case of Indian farmers they are losers. Most of the farmers are uneducated and illiterate.
They use old modes of production. On the contrary, big farmers have maintained contracts to get these services.
5. Costly Affair:
The adoption of new technology is a costly affair than the traditional method of cultivation. In the traditional agriculture except land and bullock power other inputs are least expensive. But, inputs in case of modern technology are very costly.
Indian farmers being poor are not in a position to buy these expensive inputs like pumping sets, manure and fertilizers etc. The use of these inputs is not possible without credit facilities.
6. Growth of Capitalistic Farming:
The new technology has given stimulus to capitalistic farming. The new technology needed heavy doses of investment in seeds, fertilizer, tube well and machinery etc. which are beyond the capacity of small and marginal farmers.
In India, there are about 81 million farm household but only 6 per cent big farmers who account for 40 percent of land make heavy investment in the installation of tube well, pump-sets etc. In this way, we can say that new technology has encouraged the growth of capitalistic farming.
7. Displacement of Labour:
It is felt that new agricultural strategy green revolution has led to displacement of labour. Thus, green revolution has displaced human and bullock labour by inducting mechanization.