What are the traditional and modern Means of Road Transport found in India?
Two main means of Road Transport in India are:
1. Bullock Carts:
It is the main mode of transport of Indian villages. According to F.P. Bhatia there are about 1 crore bullock carts in India. They provide work to 1 crore persons. 2 crore bullocks are there in India and there is one bullock cart per 68 persons.
2. Motor Transport:
It was after 1913 that motor transport commenced in India. To keep proper control over it, Motor Vehicles Act 1939 was passed. It has now been replaced by Motor Vehicles Act 1988. It has been amended in 1994. At present, there are 303 lakh motor vehicles whereas in 1947 their number was about 2 lakhs.
1. Extension of Agriculture is Possible:
There are many areas in the country lacking efficient means of transport. But these are fit for growing all types of crops including cash crops. According to “Indian Road and Transport Development Institute,” by extending roads to the rural areas, it is possible to increase cultivable area by 25 percent.
2. Production of Perishable Goods:
According to Road Re-organization Committee’s Report, road-system encourages the sale of such perishable goods as vegetable, fruits, milk, butter, etc. in the wide markets where from the farmer returns with the knowledge of fertilizers, implements and improved methods of agricultural production.
3. Advantage to Industries:
Industries are also benefited from the development of roads. It is through roads that raw materials reach the factories and finished products to the consumers.
Road transport provides employment to large number of people. According to Road Transport Development Committee, an outlay of Rs. 3,500 crore on roads can generate employment for 170 lakh persons.
5. Less Capital:
Roads need less capital than the railways. Countries facing shortage of capital have added importance of road .development.
It is a most flexible means of transport. Motor vehicles can run not only between two places but also from one door to the other.
7. Saving of Time and Cost:
Goods in small quantity can be transported daily through quick means of road transport whereas, the railway department waits till they book full-wagon load of goods.
8. Small Units:
As against railways, road transport service is performed through small units, like trucks, tempos etc. Thus not much capital is needed to buy these vehicles.
9. Personal Service:
Personal service is another special feature of road transport which is made possible because of small units.
10. Multi-purpose Tendency:
Roads are not built for specific vehicles. Different types of vehicles can be pressed into service. Roads can be used by bullock-cart, Tongas, rickshaws, cycles, and motors etc, whereas rail-tracks are meant only for railway trains. Similarly, water and air-transport are also meant for special type of vehicles.