New trends in Caste System: the disorganisation of the Caste System has led some to infer that in the future the Caste System will cease to exist. But some scholars have refuted this doubt. According to G.S.Ghurye there is no fear of the injunction of the Caste System in the near future due to the following towing conditions.
1) Elections based on casteism:
On the establishment of a democracy in India the government machinery is operated by representatives elected by the people. The method of election has done much to encourage the Caste System because of casteism among the voters. In this way people are asked to vote for their caste candidate and this casteism is maintained by the elected leaders after the elections are over. Some political parties sponsor only that candidate for elections in a particular are whose caste is the most numerous among the voters.
2) Special constitutional provision for backward classes:
The constitution provides for the protection of the backward and Scheduled Castes. Some posts have been reserved for them in Government services. They are given all types of facilities and special scholarships for education. All this is most welcome and even necessary and yet more special rights have encouraged casteism in the backward classes since the caste is proving beneficial to them because of these prerogatives.
In India, on the one hand, the caste is becoming weaker due to the influence of such factors as industrialisation, urbanisation, increase in the means of transportation, populating of English education, political and social awakening, democratic Government and laws abolishing untouchability etc and on the other such new organisations as labour union, etc, on the basis of occupation, post, capacity etc., are being established.
Due to an increase in the desire for money caused by the influences of western education the sense of superiority or inferiority is now based on wealth and social power of rather than or caste. The class consciousness, based on occupations, etc, is replacing the caste consciousness.
All the changes led people to believe that the Caste System will generally take on the firm of a class system. But while, on the one hand, class consciousness seems to be progressing, on the other one can see progress in casteism as well. For people who are specially gifted in a particular occupation, other occupations are very limited in India and the paths to those that are available are difficult.
Children of those parents who have a small income or who have no wealth look out only for service. In some big business institution and sometimes even in educational institutions what happens is that the proprietors, organisations and senior officials. Casteism of a similar type prevails also in Government services and political elections. Hence it can not be asserted that at the caste is disappearing and classism is increasing. Actually, in India casteism is being transformed into classism.
Future of Caste System:
It is difficult to make an unqualified statement concerning the future of the Caste System in India. It is certainly true the restrictions of marriage, diet, mode of life, behavior, etc., based on the Caste System are breaking down. But as has been described previously, casteism is increasing and Caste System is being encouraged by caste practices in election. Actually it seems more or less definite that there is no possibility of the Caste System being eliminated from the Indian society in the near future.
The root of the Caste System goes deep in Hindu society and at its basis are the important and beneficial principles of division of labour, specialisation etc, foreign invaders made their best efforts to wipe out the Hindu caste. But in spite of all efforts of the Muslims and Christians not much change was wrought in Caste System. It has definitely been affected somewhat by the influences of western education and western culture. And its form has undergone a vast change.
There is no room for doubting that this form of the Caste System will change further in future, it may even change, beyond recognition. It will also be influenced by the development of the sense of democracy and nationalism, industrial progress and by new political and economic movement.