What are the main scopes of Statistics?
Scope of Statistics
The scope of statistics is studied under the following three heads 1. Nature of Statistics. 2. Subject matter of Statistics. 3. Limitations of Statistics.
Nature of Statistics
Under nature, we study whether statistics is a science or art. According to Tipp “Statistics is both a science and an art” As a science, it studies the statistics systematic manner. As an art, it uses statistics to solve the problems of real life.
According to Dr. Bowley, “Statistics is the science of measurement of the social organism regarded as a whole in all its manifestations.” This definition defective. According to this definition the scope of the science will be restricted to and his activities.
Again according to Dr. Bowley, “Statistics is the science of counting.” This also not corrects. Statistics is not only concerned with counting but also with tabula’ summarizing, drawing graphs etc. Again the word counting gives an idea of exactness. But this is not so in statistics.
But a noteworthy point is that statistics is not an exact science like Physics, Chemistry etc. It is because statistical phenomena are generally affected by multiplicity of causes which cannot be measured accurately. It means statistics is a science in limited sense.
It is a specialized branch of knowledge. Wallis and Roberts in the book-“Statistics-A New Approach” have stated that “Statistics is not a body substantive knowledge but a body of methods for obtaining knowledge.”
It is a known fact that if science is a systematic knowledge then art is an action. From this point in view, statistics is also an art. In statistics, we apply various us to obtain facts, derive conclusions and finally suggest policy measures.
Hence statistics is both a science as well as an art.
Subject Matter of Statistics
The subject matter of statistics can be studied under two headings:
1. Statistical Methods
2. Applied Statistics
Statistical methods are the procedures used in collection organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Thus, these are the in the hands of a statistical investigator which help to achieve the desired goals, always a means to an end whose accuracy depends on the aim to be achieved.
The applied statistics includes application of statistical me’ and techniques to the problems and facts as they exist. Therefore, applied statistics is classified into two parts (i) Descriptive (ii) Scientific.
(a) Descriptive Statistics:
Descriptive measures are used to characterize of figures on Industrial output, population growth or agricultural output are the instances of descriptive study. For example, production statistics explain the nature and volume of production trends in different years. Similarly, statistics for prices and wages are useful in framing policies in the country.
(b) Scientific Statistics:
Scientific statistics are involved in making forecasts, judgments or estimation. With the help of statistical data, validity of certain laws can be correctly established.