Few points of criticism are discussed below.people into hostile camps. Sometimes these hostilities take a very serious turn and cause bloodshed. In the present times when public opinion is swinging towards extreme left and extreme right, political parties are doing a great harm to the people.
Every country appears to be divided into rightist (conservative) and leftist (radical) groups. These groups arc coming into serious clashes and conflicts everywhere.
1. Demoralize Public Opinion:
Political Parties diffuse public opinion by their propaganda and statement of facts. They carry on one-sided propaganda and often act upon the principle of Suppressio veri (suppression of truth) and Suggestus falsi (propagation of falsehood); Every political party uses all the means at its disposal to win over public opinion in its favour.
Political parties defend their own policies and offer an unhealthy criticism of other parties. Naturally public opinion gets confused and demoralized. They appeal to emotion rather than reason! They appeal in the name of flag, symbols, slogans. They appeal in the name of persons and personalities rather than principles and policies.
2. Offer Opportunity to ambitious Type of Persons:
Political parties simply offer opportunities to political ring leaders, demagogues, careerists and political adventurers. The really intellectual people get a little chance of success in political life. In the words of C.R. Dass, a great Congress leader, politics is a game of scoundrels.
A person, who knows the art of public speaking and who has the knack of collecting suffrage in his favour, becomes a political leader. Men of art, science or literature arc generally election shy.
They always keep themselves away from the sordid game of politics. Nepotism, jobbery and spoils system flourish under the party system. Castcism, provincialism, linguism, and communalism dominate in elections.
Political parties curb independent thinking. Every political party has an iron discipline of its own. The members of the political party arc supposed to cry ditto to what their political bosses say. The position of the members is reduced to that of camp followers.
A person having independent views of his own has no place in a political party. Independent members are generally turned out of the parties. The very threat of expulsion keeps the different members mum and silent. Individuality in fact gets curbed under the pressure of party discipline- However, without discipline there shall be chaos and anarchy.
Neither the government will be stable nor policies will be consistent. It avoids political corruption and parties can resist vested interests better than individuals could.
4. Loyality to the State Suffers:
The party system encourages party mentality which leads to disruption and separatism in the state. National interests are subordinated to party interests which assume topmost priority. Consequently, loyalty to the state takes the form of loyalty to the party. But no party can exist unless it believes in national integrity.
Political parties have their merits as well as demerits but democracy needs them for its effective functioning. We can not thus do with out them but we should try to remedy the defects from which they suffer. The baby must not be thrown out along with the bath.
This can be done by proper education of the voters. British democracy has now survived for about 200 years and political parties have functioned well. Similarly in U.S.A. the political parties have made success of the constitution and have adapted it to the changing conditions. In both the countries, neither national unity has been disrupted nor the individuality has been curbed.
Recently, the one party Communist states are also resorting to multi party system. What is needed is healthy party-system devoid of hostile factions and conspiratorial groups.