The improvements which the U.N.O. possesses over the League of Nations are more technical than real. The U.N.O. also suffers from certain grave defects.
1. The U.N.O. is based upon the principle of sovereign equality of member states. All of them enjoy legal equality inspite of the vast differences of population and size. Thus India with vast population and area has equal vote with Monaco, a state with very small population and area.
2. Each member state retains its sovereignty into making the U.N.O. only a little better than an international debating society.
3. The veto power given to the Big Five Powers makes it impossible for the U.N.O. to take effective steps for preservation of international peace. The veto power can render U.N.O. completely useless if one of the Big Five happens to be an aggressor because no action can be taken against it without its consent.
4. People’s Republic of China, with the world’s biggest population and a large area had been given representation in the U.N.O. With the admission of Communist China the U.N.O. became a true international organization representing the world.
5. The root cause of weakness of the U.N.O. as a guarantor of world peace lies not so much in its structural or procedural defects as in the power politics between the Soviet bloc and the Anglo-American bloc. Their ideologies clash with each other. In fact, the U.N.O. has become an arena in which the two opposing blocs constantly measure their strength against each other.
Because of these two powerful blocs smaller states are compelled to align themselves with one or the other bloc and have no independence of views. There are, of course, a few non-aligned countries, the foremost being India, who follow their policy of neutrality.