Causes of Formation of the League:
(i) Reaction to the horrors of the war witnessed by the world.
(ii) The need to keep balance of power for the safeguard of nations. The organization of the League consisted of the following organs:
(a) The Assembly:
It consisted of the representatives of all the member states.
(b) The Council:
It was the executive organ of the League.
(c) The Secretariat:
It was the office of the League.
(d) The Permanent Court of Justice:
It functioned as a tribunal for adjudicating disputes of international character.
Causes of its Failure:
1. The political background of Europe at the lime of the birth of the League was not conducive to a peace organization.
2. The League never represented the world balance of forces. It was dominated by Anglo-French imperialism.
3.It was wrongly based on the unanimity of all the member nations.
4. The world was divided into the capitalistic and the socialistic systems and former dominated the show.
5. The spheres of activity of the Council and the Assembly were not clearly defined.
6. The responsibility for maintenance of peace was not securely placed anywhere.
The history of the League may be divided into three periods.
(a) During the period immediately following the war, the League was kept in cold storage.
(b) Second period lasted till 1929-30. Some disputes were decided by the League during this period.
(c) The last phase ended with the beginning of the Second World War.