As has been observing, “A problem may be classified under various stages of education – Infant Education, Primary Educator, Secondary Education and University Education or under various kinds of education general Education, Technical or Vocational Education, Moral Education and Physical Education.

The problems may be classified on the basis of various educational aspects under the following heads as: Curriculum, Text Book and Syllabus, Organisation, Administration, Equipment, Methods of teaching, Socio-Economic conditions, Teacher Education, etc.”

“Research is tedius, painfully slow and rarely spectacular. The experienced research workers give their views regarding the solution of a problem and establishment of its truth that a problem needs a lot of time, energy and logical thinking for its solution. A researcher serves principles and laws for the analysis of problems.

The academic research projects contribute to the development of refinement of knowledge or to the improvement of practice. The lack of time, financial, resources, experience and expert guide create hindrances to significant contributions”.


Designing of Problem for Research:

As mentioned earlier, the area of education is very broad in its meaning. Generally, the researcher takes only one area which he studies deeply and gives some references to follow. But for the present pattern of education the syllabus prepared for the students should take steps for a clear understanding in their performance and achievement.

Any research taken for study requires planning and proper organisation. Some studies remain incomplete because of the mismanagement of organisation and lack of proper planning. So the problems found in education can be taken for a research work. Basically action research brings the accurate solution for a problem immediately.

According to Prof. Prem Nath, “Problems should be taken for high level of research from subjects like aims or values of education, philosophical trends in curriculum construction, philosophy of democracy and its bearing on education, humanism and education.


The areas on which mainly research projects depend are as given below:

(i) Research on Educational Psychology is an important thing of the present educational system. Hence researcher must deal with the problems like delinquency, frustration, low achievements in the examination, proper motivational factor in the classroom learning.

(ii) The modern trend of education is to make the child to cope with the society. Many problems do arise at the time of preparing syllabus that what sort of curriculum should be adopted in our teaching- learning process. According to some psychologists, curriculum should be adopted in our teaching- learning process. According to some psychologists, curriculum should be implemented according to the interest of the child. But practically, curriculum should follow the vocational system of education. Problems in choosing it should be taken in a high order for a research project.

(iii) Planning for successful methods of teaching between the teachers and students attention should be given or dynamic side of teaching. The mundane the techniques of teaching are changing and this sort of change may create problems for the old teachers to deal with the situations.


(iv) Educational administration is an area which held’s responsible for the development of practical education in the state. Hence it may be taken into research projects for its further development.

(v) Much attention should be paid on teacher education. Today, the teachers’ problems have affected our education and much priority must be given to solve their problems.

(vi) The aim of basic education that is based on psychological, sociological and biological part of view should need a great care for its research. If improvements are found in these areas at that time a good atmosphere will reign our educational system to its maximum.

Again according to Prof. Nath, Provisions should be taken for the solution of problem. It is easy to find out a problem but it is difficult to find out the actual needs for its solution. Better pre-requisites help to solve a problem very easily. The following pre-requisites should be followed before going to take any research work.


A. Planning:

The project taken for study must clearly mention its definition and classification of purpose and scope of operation. It should, also follow the investigation to reveal conditions affecting the achievement of purposes. These should be an analysis to determine the meaning of facts. A planned scheme brings a good result at its conclusion.

B. Guidance:

Guidance cannot be separated from the general life of a research project. It helps the researcher to concentrate of the problems. Our educational system is defective. It is not according to the age, ability, interest and intelligence.


Hence guidance will provide the teachers to study the defective system of our education. This study may be of various branches of education like guidance relates to vocational aspects, school problems, social development, etc. Guidance is immediately concerned with the selection of the problems.

C. Experts:

Research works require experts. Expert means he who is experienced in a certain area. He should have thorough knowledge of research. He should be able to guide properly and formulate a well-planned project for work to be pursued.

D. Training:


In research work trained teachers or researchers do the work up to their maximum satisfaction. They know how to organise, how to plan and how to implement the project for its completion. Teacher training and training for students leads to maximise educational output.

E. Finance:

Education is one of the most key enterprises of a nation. It is concerned with the whole population. Hence new problems taken for study require financial help from the state for its better progress.

F. References:

For any research project references should be followed. It has a great impact on the mind of the researcher. He gathers knowledge of techniques and related observations. This helps him in making a well-planned project for work. A preliminary work done will provide a lot of experience to a new researcher who will be interested to work more on that particular area.

G. Library:

Library is the treasure of knowledge. It provides large number of materials through books of which quality, quantity and the variety is really endless. So the researcher should know the ways of writing all these materials in the right ways.

For a research project the primary needs or prerequisites are most essential requirements to be filled upto some extent. This helps in the promotion of work very rapidly and in a very easy way. While taking project for work to bring its actual solution the following steps should be followed.