Afghanistan is slowly moving towards a democratic form of governance in the post- Taliban period. After the fall of Taliban in 2001, the UN sponsored Bonn Conference led to a creation of a 30-member interim administration and an international security force was deployed under UN mandate. Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun tribal leader was chosen the head of this interim administration.
In December 2003, Loya Jirga (grand assembly) of Afghanistan was held to discuss draft constitution and it became a law in January 2004. It made Afghanistan a democratic state under a presidential system with two-chambered Parliament. Equal citizenship is granted to men and women and 25% of lower hosue seats are reserved for women.
The first direct presidential elections were held in October 2004 which Hamid Karzai won. Since 2001, development and reconstruction work is going on to bring peace and prosperity in Afghanistan. Major countries including India are providing technical and financial assistance. G-6 plus two (six neighbours of Afghanistan plus USA and Russia) are officially leading reconstruction work in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, international forces are providing security and efforts to flush Taliban remants are also going on.