Appliances used in a building plumbing system to receive the human excreta and sullage waste of the building.

(A) Soil Fittings Are:

Water closets:

A water closet is a water flushed plumbing fixture designed to receive the human excreta directly and is connected to the soil pipe by means of a trap.


It is made of vitreous china or porcelain and the par (seal) and trap are in two different pieces and jointed together. The trap has an opening for fixing an anti-siphonage pipe or a vent pipe.

Types of water closets:

(i) Squatting/Indian type:

The pan has a flushing rim to spread the flush forced into it and into the soil pipe by flushing the pan with water released under pressure from the flushing cistern. The W. C. requires at least 10 liters of water for proper flushing. The pan is fixed in a squatting/sitting position at floor level and is usually provided with pair of foot rest.


(ii) Pedestal/European/Wash down:

It is used in hotels. It is provided with a side flushing rim and a 50 mm trap. It is provided with an inlet or a supply horn for connecting to the flushing pipe.

(iii) It is a combination of the European & squatting type wc. The top is wider & the user can either use as a European wc, using the plastic scale a squid on it as in an Indian W/c.

(B) Urinal Pots:


(i) Bowl type/Basin type:

One piece construction provided with two fixing holes on each side for fixing holes on each side for fixing on the wall. More costly than slab type. Better appearance than slab type.

They are made up of glazed earthenware or vitreous china clay. They are usually flushed with symphonic type of flushing cisterns which are automatically flushed at desired intervals of time (10 to 15 minutes).

At the bottom of the bowl shaped vessel an outlet horn is provided for connecting the urinal to the soil pipe through Nahni trap.


(ii) Stall/slab type:

Walls and the wall in front are glazed against which the urine is passed by ireless.

At bottom a drain is made along the front wall in which urine flaws and this is finally connected to the soil pipe through a floor trap. The flushing is provided by a cistern.

(iii) Squatting plate type:


Used in ladies toilets.

(C) Flushing Cisterns:

Flushing cistern of water closet is a device which releases a fixed quantity of water under pressure so as to flush and clean the pan and trap of water closet or urinal.

There are two types of flushing cisterns:


(a) High level cistern:

Made of C. I. minimum height 2.25 m Bell type. Now a day’s made of plastic with fiber glass reinforcement for greater strength. These are operated by pulling action.

The discharge capacities are 5, 10 & 15 liters. They should discharge at an average rate of 5 liters in 3 seconds.

Flushing cisterns:

(i) Bell type:

Siphonic type without any valve fig. 9.5 .1 is consists of C. I. box of 10 to 15 liters provided with a central outlet stand pipe covered by bell shape C. I. vessel. This bell is connected to a chain through a lever arm arrange­ment. When chain is pulled the bell receives a jerk and splashes some water.

The water runs down the pipe. Takes away some air with it, which causes a partial vacuum at the top of the bell shaped vessel (it is at its crown). This starts the siphonic action and all the water inside the cistern is sucked rapidly through the large opening near the base of the bell.

The emptying action takes only a few seconds causing powerful flush in the water closet below. The chain should be released immediately after being pulled to force the water out of flush pipe.

This cistern is supplied with water through a ball valve arrangement so that the water inlet gets closed when the cistern is full with water up to water line and gets open when it is empty, permitting entry of water.

It is also provided with an over flow pipe to drain out excess incoming water if the ball cock gets out of order so as to avoid spilling of water over the cistern in the toilet.

(ii) Mechanical type/Flat type provided with valve:

Flushing valve is manning valve which is opened by means of a lever and closes automatically after 9 liters of water have been delivered.

(a) Automatic flushing cistern for the urinals

(b) Low level cistern.

(D) Wash Basin:

A wash basin is vessel used for washing hands or brushing teeth etc. in a standing position. It is made of glazed earthenware or vitreous china clay. It is provided with one or two tapes. In some cases separate cold & hot water connec­tion are given and mixed water comes out thought a mixer arrangement.

The wash basin may be supported on brackets, fixed on wall or sup­ported on pedestals.

Minimum height 60 cm. Used with European type of water closet. These are made of glazed vitreous ware. It looks descent in appearance. Now days these are made up of hard durable plastic.

Box type toilet paper holder Tooth paste and brush holder Robe hook Mirror shelf

(E) Shower:

Bath is taken under a shower in bath room.

(F) Bath Tub

One sits down or lies down in the bath tub. The tub can be filled with water which can be drained out by opening the plastic plug 4 to 8 cm diameter.

It is generally made of vitreous earthenware or of marble. Now a day’s acrylic bath tubs are also available.