Rhizobia are able to enter into symbiotic relationship with legumes (pulses, etc.). They fix atmospheric nitrogen and thus not only increase the production of the inoculated crops, but also leave a fair amount of nitrogen in the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop.

Following seven groups of Rhizobia have been recognized for inoculating legumes in India: R. leguminosarum, R. japonica and Rhizobium spp. The new technology for industrial preparation for rhizobial cultures included the following: (0 seed polluting with gum arabic or crboxy methyl cellulose as percoated seed (ii) polyacrylamide entrapped rhizobia; (iii) frezedried or lyophilzed culture of rhizobia; (iv)

Rhizobium paste; (v) inoculants in liquid/frozen concentrate form; (vi) granular soil inoculants to be applied by aerial application; (vii) natural peat granule as soil implant inoculum.