Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic associating of fungi with roots of plants, so that the nutrients absorbed from soil by the fungus are released to the host eels and in turn, the fungus takes its food requirements from the host. Mycorrhizae are of two types’ viz., ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza.
Ectomycorrhiza are found on the roots of forest trees such as pine, oak, beech, eucalyptus, etc. They absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium. They also convert complex organic molecules into simpler available forms, protect the roots from the pathogen, and produce growth promoting substances. Endomycorrhiza are found in the roots of most fruits and other horticultural crops such as coffee, pepper, cardamon betelvine, etc. They particularly help in phosphorus nutrition. They also produce growth promoting substances and offer resistance against pathogens.