1. Copyright and Trade-mark
Copyright is one of the creative Intellectual Property Rights and protects creative or artistic works. Copyright applies on literative, music, art, painting, etc.
A Trademark is a type of intellectual property represented by a distinctive sign or indicator of some kind used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to identify uniquely the source of its products or services to consumer.
Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) is an autonomous organization under the Department of Science and Technology, established in February 1988.
TIFAC aims to keep a technology watch on global trends, and formulating preferred technology options for India.
The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of public controversy regarding its safety and the circumstances around its approval.
The US Food and Drug Administration states that the safety of aspartame is “clear cut”.
Gene doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency as “the non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene-expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance.”
Sappan Wood or East Indian real wood is a multipurpose tree. It is a small thorny spreading tree that up to 10m in height and the wood reaches 15-30 cm in diameter.
In India it is cultivated in gardens and nurseries as a live fence plants in parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperature, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level.
The report said man-made emissions of greenhouse gases can already be blamed for fewer cold days, hotter nights, heat waves, floods and heavy rains, devasting drought, and an increase in hurricane and tropical-storm strengths.
7. What is firewall?
It is a technique related to security regarding computers. It allows only those programs to the computer which are permitted and restrict any other unwanted command and data.
8. What is malware?
This software is made to harm any computer system. Computer users are unknown to the term malware and many a times they misunderstand it with virus.
9. Discuss the missile technology initiatives undertaken by India.
(i) MPEG: Moving Picture Expert Group.
(ii) HTML : Hyper Text Markup Language.
(iii) ASCII : American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
10. What is Root Kit?
By Root kit a special program is directed which can destroy the whole operation system and it can steal information from a group.
11. What is computer architecture?
Computer architecture is a computer technique which helps in various areas and subjects related to designing.
12. What do you understand by a search engine in computer?
Internet search engines (eg Google, AltaVista) help users find web pages on a given subject. The search engines maintain databases of web sites and use programs (often referred to as “spiders” or “robots”) to collect information, which is then indexed by the search engine.
Similar. SOT’.’f.Sf:,”areprovided by 11 directories”, which maintain ordered lists of websites, eg Yahoo!
13. Expand the following
(i) CAD: Computer Aided Design
(ii) CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing
(iii) CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacturing
14. Explain what is Thin Film Memory in computers?
Thin film memory is a high-sped variation of core memory developed by Sperry Rand in a government-funded research project. Instead of threading individual ferrite cores on wires, a thin film (4 millionths of an inch thick) of iron- nickel alloy (called permalloy) was deposited as small dots (using a mask) on small glass plates, by vacuum evaporation techniques.
15. Write a short note on Artificial Intelligence.
A branch of computer science that studies how to endow computers with capabili: ties of human intelligence. For example, speech recognition is a problem being worked on by A1 scientists.
16. Who are called Hackers in computer world?
A hacker is someone who creates and modifies computer software and computer hardware, including computer programming, administration, and security-related items.
The term usually bears strong connotations, but may be either favorable or denigrating depending on cultural context (see the Hacker definition controversy). Common definitions include.
17. What do you understand by E- governance?
E-governance refers to the use of information and communications technologies to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.
18. What is URL?
URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web.
19. What do the following stand for?
(i) CD-ROM: Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
(ii) USB: Universal Serial Bus.
(iii) ITES: Information Technology Enabled Services.
(iv) FORTRAN: Formula Translator.
20. What do understand by MP3?
An audio compression technology that is part of the MPEG-1 and MPEG2specifications.
21. What are cyber crimes? How are these protected?
Cyber crimes consists of specific crimes dealing with computers and networks (such as hacking) and the facilitation of traditional crime through the use of computer (child pornography, hate crimes, telemarketing/ internet fraud). Cyber crimes can be protected by passing stringent laws, developing security codes and use of digital signatures.
22. What is ‘Sympathetic Haptics’?
Sympathetic Haptics uses a data glove to sense the pressure being applied by a user to every part of that user’s hand and fingers. The system can then broadcast those feelings over the Internet to another user wearing the same type of glove.
23. What are special features of ‘Linux’?
Features of Linux are:
(i) Full multitasking and 32-bit support
(ii) GNU software support
(iii) TCP/IP networking support
(iv) Virtual memory and shared libraries.
24. What is an operating system? List the basic services provided by an operating system.
The operating system is the first program loaded into the computer as it boots, and it remains in memory at pull times thereafter. This is responsible for allocating system resources, including memory, processor time, disk space and peripheral devices such as printers, modems and the monitor.
25. What is an ‘Internet Worm? Explain DDoS.
When a worm gains access to a computer (usually by breaking into it over the internet) it launches a programme which searches for other internet locations, infecting them if it can. At no time does the worm need user assistance (accidental or not) in order to operate its programming. Moreover, the worm travels over the internet, so all machines attached to an infected machine are at risk of attack. DDOS- Distributed Denial of Service
26. What do the following stand for?
(i) POSsIX: Portable Operating System Interface.
(ii) EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read only Memory.
(iii) MODEM: Modulator-Demodulator.
(iv) COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language.
27. What is a digital camera?
A digital camera has no film but a server converts light into an image that can be stored on a computer or printed out on a desktop printer.
28. What is firewall in computer Language?
Firewall is the safety valve for the computer not allowing others to reach the converted programmes.
29. What is multimedia?
Multimedia uses audio, video, virtual reality technique, telephony etc. at the same time.
30. What do the following stand for?
(i) HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language.
(ii) FTP: File Transfer Protocol.
(iii) MFLOPS: Million Floating Points Option Per Second.
(iv) PLANIT: Planit website has won 5 web awards.
31. What is Piracy?
Piracy is duplicating the original one and selling it through black marketing.
32. What is “handshake” in computer language?
In computer language ‘handshake’ is the sequence of messages exchanged between two or more network devices to ensure transmission synchronisation.
33. What is “Ethernet” and what is it used for?
A baseband LAN (Local Area Network) specification invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet networks operate at 10 Mbps using CSMA/CD to run over coaxial cable. Ethernet is similar to a series of standards produced by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers).
34. What is “digital signature” and what is it used for?
In business transaction, digital signature plays a function for digital documents. The increase in electronic commerce has made it a requirement. A digital signature system consists of two parts – a method of signing a document so that forgery is not possible, and a method of verifying that a signature was really generated by the person who it represents.
35. What do the following stand for?
(i) DRAM: Distributed Random Access Memory.
(ii) JPEG: Joint Photographic Expert’s Group.
(iii) ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
(iv) IMAP: Image Map.
36. What is a WAP-enabled phone?
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
is a technique used in telecommunication. In this technique a telephone is attached with a screen on which one see the image of the talking partner through this technique one can also access the WAP sites.
37. What are the prospects of CTBT?
If nuclear powers are ready to accept the national interest of other countries and willing to negotiate the terms, this CT&T would ensure the world peace even with nuclear powers.
38. Differentiate between Collective security and Cooperative security.
Collective security is for the Global concern including all the nations on common vital issues, i.e. environment space etc. Cooperative security is agreement between two or more nation in defence.
39. What do the following stand for?
(i) MARV: Multiple Airborne Re-entry Vehicles
(ii) MIRV: Multiple Independent targeted Re-entry Vehicles.
(iii) ICBM: Inter Continental Ballistic Missile.
40. Differentiate between Explosion and Implosion.
In explosion, energy is released by particles flowing outwards of the nucleus – i.e. Atom bomb. In implosion, energy is released by particles flowing inwards to the nucleus i.e. stars.
41. What does the ‘clock speed’ of a computer signify?
Clock speed refers to the rate of which the CPU clock operates. Measured in mhz or GHz. Faster the clock, faster the programme of operations.
42. What do the following stand for?
(i) HTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
(ii) CPU: Central Processing Unit.
(iii) ROM: Read Only Memory.
(iv) BIOS: Basic Input Output System.
43. What are a modern and what is it used for?
Modern stands for modulator demodulator. This device links a computer system and a telephone line to facilitate data transmission at high speed between two computers.
44. What is spamming?
It refers to junk mails. They proliferate despite many efforts to reduce them. Term is used for unsoldated commercial mails.
45. How does a computer virus destroy data?
A computer virus is active software. It enters a computer and damages or destroys data by its program.
46. What is modern? What is it used for?
Modern stands for modulator demodulator telephone line to facilitate data transmission at high speed between two computers. It converts analog data to digital vice-versa.
47. What is CNG? How can it reduce air pollution?
Comprehensive Natural Gas. Reduces emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and other pollutants, green house gases etc.
48. What is a computer virus? How does it infect systems?
Computer virus is a Software Programme which actively spreads and enters in computers to destroy or damage, data in the affected computers.
49. What do the following stand for?
(i) NISSAT: National Information System for Science and Technology.
(ii) GMRT: Giant Metre wave Radio Telescope.
(iii) INMAS: Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Science.
50. Where are the following located?
(i) Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology :Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
(ii) Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research: Kakpakkam, Tamil Nadu.
(iii) Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre: Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
51. How do identical twins differ from each other genetically?
Identical twins are ‘minor image’ of each other in their genetic composition and so their habits reflect it. One becomes lefty and other right handed and soon.
52. Why are transgenic organisms important?
Transgenic Organisms are created with desired ability and quality. In agriculture, such plant is made drought proof, resistible to any disorder. Livestocks are brought up through this technique which yields more milk meat and wool.
53. State the importance of Antrix Corporation.
Antrix Corporation is the Commercial branch of the ISRO. It sales scientific services related to the space technology and satellites in the international market earning valuable foreign currency for India.
54. Why is Website getting popular?
Website is the location where information is kept in the Internet. They give us easily and quickly information access. So, they are very popular now-a-days.
55. What do the following stand for?
(i) C-DAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
(ii) ICMR: Indian Council of Medical Research
(iii) TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.
56. Give the functions of interferons.
Interferons increases immunity of our body by producing antibodies. They are anti-viral proteins.
57. What is the difference between E-mail and FAX?
E-mail is electronic-mail used to send message between two computers via internet while fax prints the message on a paper by fax machine.
58. What is centchroman?
A contraceptive formulation developed and used in India. Though it is not approved by FDA for sale in the U.S. yet, is supposedly does not have any of the negative side effect.
59. What is ultrasonography?
Using more than 20,000 Hz frequency rays an image of internal part of body is recorded for medical and surgical user. This technique is known as ultrasonography.
60. What do the following stand for?
(i) C-DOT: Centre for Development of Telematics.
(ii) CGCRI: Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute.
(iii) INMAS: Institute of Nuclear medicine and Allied Science.
61. What is HIV? What does it cause?
HIV is Human Immuno deficiency Virus. It causes a disease Aids (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) which weakens immunity system of body.
62. Why does a lunar eclipse occur only on a full moon?
Only on a full moon day, the Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon, which is necessary for a lunar eclipse.
63. Where are the following located? (Give the name of the city and state)
(i) Central Drug Research Institute: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
(ii) Space Application Centre: Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
(iii) Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research: Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu.