Important questions on Phanerogans: Gymnosperms


1. Distinguish between protostele and siphonostele.

2. Explain the following:

(a) Polarity


(b) Archesporium

3. Descrihe the structure of antheridiophore in Funaria.

4. Distinguish between the following:

(a)Perigenous and Mesogenous Stomata.


(b)Phyllospermous and Stachyspermous.

Describe the following:

(a) Distribution of cycads in India.

(b) Stamens in Magnoliaceae.


(c) Ovule of Tax us.

(d) Male organs of Williamsonia.

(e) Stamens in Leguminosae.

(f) Inflorescence in Euphorbiaceae.


(g)Carpels in Ranunciulaceae.

(h)Floral formula of Apiaceae

4. Compare the characters of cycadales and Bennettitales.

5. Describe the male “flower” of Ephedra.


6. Mention the botanical name, family and die plant parts used of the following:

(a) Rice (b) Lentil

(c) Walnut (d) Heeng

(e) Clove (J) Fennal

(g) Ashwagandh (h) Cocaine

(i) Mamla hemp (j) Coir

7. Write short notes on:

(a) Diatoms (b) Viroids

(c) Mycoplasma (d) Proteases

8. Describe the following:

(a) Archegoniphore of Marchantia.

(b) Sporophyte of Marsilea.

9. Distinguish between the following:

(a) Interxylary and intraxylary phloem.

(b) Latex-tubes and resin canals.

10. Describe the following:

(a) Stamens in Cucurbitaceae.

(b) Translators in Asclepiadaceae.

(c) Cycadofilicales.

(d) Floral diagram in Solanaceae.

(e) Carpels in dicots.

(f) Hydrosere

11. Write an account of the family Rubiaceae and compare it with that of Verbenaceae.

12. Describe the family Cucurbitaceae, giving floral diagrams and floral formulae.

13. Write about the economic importance of the family Asteraceae.

14. Mention the botanical name, family and plant part used of the following:

(a) Teak (b) Heeng

(c) Jute (d) Turmeric

(e) Sarapgandha (f) Cocoa

(g) Cotton (h) Bamboo

(i) Opium (j) Peppermint

15. Describe the following:

(a) Structure of Funaria capsule

(b) Tetrasporophyte

(c) Gemma cups

(d) Types of Protosteles

16. Distinguish the following:

(a) Compare diagnostic features of Orchidaceae and Liliaceae.

(b) Compare Floral structures in Ranunculaceae and Magnoliaceae.

(c) Compare pollination in Fabaceae and Poaceae along with their flower structures.

(d) Compare Floral formulae of Musa paradisiaca L. and Oryza sativa L.

17. Give the Floral structure in Poaceae.

18. Mention the botanical name, family and plant parts used of the following:

(a) Maize (b) Tea

(c) Turmeric (d) Marigold

(e) Asafoetida (f) Cocoa

(g) Ergot (h) Caraway

(i) Sugar palm (j) Barley

19. Answer the following:

(a) Gametangium of Ectocarpus.

(b) An illustrated account of nucule of Nitella.

(c) Flagellate apparatus in Chlamydomonas.

(d) Outline diagrams showing various parts of pennate diatoms.

(e) Auxospore formation in diatoms.

(f) Strobillus of Selaginella.

20. Differentiate between:

(a) Oogonium and sporangium

(b) Isomorphic and heteromorphic life cycles.

(c) Akinete and zygote.

21. With the help of suitable diagrams describe the life history of Oedogonium. (No description)

22. Write an illustrated account of sporophytic phase of Anthoceros.

23. Make a comparative study of the following families giving flora formula and floral diagram. Give important differentiating morphological features only.

(a) Musaceae and Liliaceae

(b) Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae

(c) Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae

(d) Solanaceae and Rubiaceae

24. Draw neat labelled diagrams of the following: (No description)

(a) T.S. coralloid roots of Cycas

(b) L.S. Ginkgo seed

(c) L.L. Pinus ovule

(d) T.S. leaf of Gnetum

25. Write notes on:

(a) Salient features of floral structure of Magnolia grandiflora.

(b) L.S. of flower of Rosa species and floral diagram.

(c) L.S. of female flower of Cucurbita maxima and its floral formula.

(d) Economic importance of the family Orchidaceae.

(e) Anatomy of phyllode.

(f) Anatomical differences between C3 and C4 plants.

(g) Medicinal importance of Catharanthus roseus (= Vinca rosea).

26. Mention the botanical name, family and the part’s of the plant used as shown below:

(a) Indian rubber(b) Indigo

(c) Sandalwood oil (d) Vanilla

(e) Guava (f) Finger millet

(g) Cinnamon (h) Agar agar

(i) Betel (j)Opium

27. Distinguish between the following:

(a) Mature sporophyte of Riccia Marchantia

(b) Cleistothecia and Apothecia Ascomycetes.

(c) Sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonj and Volvox.

(d) Oscillatoria and Anabaena.

28. Write a short note on Morphological natu of sporocarp of Marsilea.

29. Distinguish between Aril and caruncle.

30. Write what you know on Floral characters Asclepiadaceae.

31. Describe the following:

(a) Distribution of gymnosperms in India


(c) Bennettitales

(d) Orchidaceae in India

32. What are the diagnostic floral features of Brassicaceae?

33. Describe male gemetes of Ginkgo biloba.

34. Write a short note on diagnostic features of family Euphorbiaceae.

35. Mention the botanical name, family and the part(s) used for each of the following:

(a) Cashew (b) Nutmeg

(c) Kenaf (d) Oil palm

(e) Vetiver oil (f) Cork

(g) Annatto (h) Clove

(i) Belladonna (j) Ginger

36. Write short notes on:

(a) Plurilocular sporangia in Ectocarpus.

(b) Hetermorphic life cycle in Phaeophyceae (Give a diagrammatic sketch).

(c)Alternation of generations in slime molds (Pictorial presentation of life cycle).

(d) Gametophytic phase in Laminaria.

(e) L.S. of sporocarp of Marsilea (Labelled diagram only).

(f) T.S. of Equisetum stem (Diagram only).

(g)Nucule of Chara.

(h) Cleistothecium in Erysiphe.

37. With the help of diagrams, describe the structure of Marchantia antheridiophore.

38. Draw neat labelled diagrams of the following:

(a) Anatomy of Equisetum cone.

(b) Cross-section of the gametophytic thallus of Riccia.

(c) Life cycle of Ectocarpus- (Pictorial presentation only).

(d) Structure of prothallus of Adiantum.

39. Give F.F. and F.D. of the following families:

(a) Euphorbiaceae

(b) Asteraceae (Compositae)

(c) Liliaceae

(d) Rubiaceae

40. Write short notes on:

(a) Functions of endosperm.

(b) Experimental induction of polyembryony.

(c) Causes and significance of apomixis.

(d) Draw a neat labelled diagram of a typical organised embryo sac.

(e) T.S. of Ephedra leaf.

(f) Economic importance of plants belonging to family Umbelliferae.

41. Describe the type of anomalous secondary growth found in the stems of the following (Draw neat labelled diagrams):

(a) Aristolochia

(b) Bignonia

(c) Boerhaavia

(d) Dracaena

42. Mention the botanical name, family and plant parts used in the following:

(a) Henna (b) Penicillin

(c) Ginger (d) Chestnut

(e)Indian bow string hemp

(f) Camphor (g) Clove oil (h) Sassafras

(i) Mulberry (j) Date Palm

43. Write short notes on:

(a) Dolipore

(b) Pseudoelaters of Anthoceros-the structure and function.

(c) Peristomial teeth of Funaria.

44. How are the young sporogonia of Marchantia protected?

45. Present diagrammatic depictions of different life cycle patterns in Saccharomyces spp. What is the trend exhibited.

46. Write short notes on:

(a) Plurilocular sporangia of Ectocarpus.

(b) Conceptacles of Fucus.

(c) Spores of Lycopodium in comparison with those of Selaginella.

(d) Sporophyte of Riccia at maturity.

47. Draw the labelled diagram of the following:

(a) T.S. of rhizome of Pteridium.

(b) Life cycle of Puccinia graminis.

(c) Life cycle of Polysiphonia.

48. Describe briefly the following:

(a) Egg apparatus in the majority of angiosperms.

(b) Kranz Anatomy and its importance with respect of photosynthesis.

(c) Practical value of polyembryony.

(d) Role of anther tapetum.

49. Give floral formulae and floral diagrams of the following families:

(a) Solanaceae

(b) Apiaceae

(c) Brassicaceae

(d) Liliaceae

50. Draw neat, labelled diagrams of the following:

(a) L.S. mature seed of cycas.

(b) L.S. female cone of Pinus.

(c) Pollen grain of Ginkgo at the time of shedding.

(d) L.S. female strobilus of Ephedra.

51. Mention the botanical name, family and plants part(s) used in the following:

(a) Kapok (b) Rye

(c) Oil palm (d) Cashew

(e) Cassava (f) Turmeric

(g) Saffron (h) Poppy

(i) Vasaka (j) Wormwood

52. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration has been achieved in almost all the important plants. Describe the method of isolation, culture and, regeneration of plants from protoplasts isolated from any model plant species.

53. Characteristic features of reproductive organs of Bennettitales.

54. Distinguish between:

(a)Monosporic and bisporic embryo sac.

(b)Androecium of Malvaceae and Asteraceae.

55. Write short notes on the following:



(c)Intraxylary Phloem

(d)Androecium of Euphorbiaceae

(e)Gynoecium of Solanaceae

(f) Botanical names of any five cereal plants.

(g) Inflorescence in Asteraceae.

(h) Pollen allergy

(i) Types of pollination

(j) Gynostegium

56. Give botanical name, family and utility of each of the following:



(c) Button mushroom


(e)Coconut if) Sago

(g) Ashwagandha

(h) Periwinkle

(i) Jute

(j) Pumpkin

57. Describe the following:

(a)Asteraceae and Liliaceae

(b)Rubiaceae and Verbenaceae

58. Write a short note on anatomical structure of Rhynia stem.

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