Rights are considered to be fundamental conditions for development of human personality. The importance of basic human rights was recognized by the U.N.O. The Economic and Social Council of U.N.O. appointed a Commission in 1946 to go into the question of fundamental human rights.
The commission submitted a report and the same was passed by the General Assembly of U.N.O. on 10th December, 1948. This day is a red-letter day in the history of the human race. Every year 10th December is celebrated as a Human Rights Day all over the world.
The Commission has become a Permant Commission on human rights and functions as a subsidiary body of Economic and Social Council, and it is constantly engaged in the work of getting these rights translated into action by the different member states of the U.N.O. According to Article 55 and 56 of the U.N. Charter, all members of the United Nations pledge themselves to take joint and separate action for observation of human rights for all without distinction of race, sex, language or religion. The following is the list of fundamental human rights suggested by the Commission.
1. Civil and Political Rights :
(1) Right to life and liberty.
(2) Right to self-defence.
(3) Freedom from forced labour or ‘Begar’.
(4) No person should be imprisoned without a specific breach of law, established in a law court.
(5) Freedom of sanctity of home.
(6) Freedom of correspondence and communication.
(7) Freedom to travel in any part of the world.
(8) Right of property.
(9) Right to religious freedom.
(10) Right to speech, press and association.
(11) Right to vote and to be elected.
(12) Right to hold any office under the Government, provided the prescribed qualifications are fulfilled.
II. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights :
(1) Right to social security.
(2) Right to work and employment
(3) Right to equal wages for similar work irrespective of sex.
(4) Right to rest and leisure.
(5) Right to education.
(6) Right to cultural freedom.
Achievements of the Commission on Human Rights :
The Commission on Human Rights has attained a substantial measure of success. Various states have incorporated a list of fundamental rights in their Constitutions.
Even the jurisdiction of the U.N.O. in this connection has been extended to include not only the member states but also to the individuals who are normally considered to be the citizens of the World State.
Points to Remember
1. Rights are necessary for the development of personality. The same is recognized by U.M.O. The Economic and Social Council submitted a report on human rights passed by the General Assembly. All the nations are committed to these rights.
2. Civil and Political Rights are rights to life, liberty self-defence, freedom from labour, sancity of home, correspondence etc.
3. Economic , social and cultural rights to social security, work, equal wages, rest and leisure and education.