Get complete information on Sub-family Papilionatae (Fabaceae)

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Inflorescence:

Racemose or solitary axillary.

Flower:

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Bracteate, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, complete, zygomorphic, hypogynous.

Calyx:

Sepals 5, connate at the base valvate aestivation.

Corolla:

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Petals 5, polypetalous, papilionaceous, descending imbricate aestivation, one posterior long standard, two lateral short wings, two anterior petals jointed to each other forming keel.

Androecium:

10 stamens, diadelphous, 9 fused with each other on anterior side, one free on posterior side. Anther lobes bilocular, dorsifixed, introse.

Gynoecium:

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Monocarpellary, unilocular, marginal placentation, ovary superior.

Fruit: Legume

Economic importance

(A) Plants used as food:

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(1) Pulses:

Various kinds of pulses are obtained from the plants of this subfamily, e.g. garden pea = edible peas (Pisum sativum) gram (Cicer arietinum), Lobia (Vigna sinensis), Arhar (Cajanus cajan), Masoor (Lens esculenta), Urd (Phaseolus mungo), Mung (P. aureus). Pulses are rich source of protein.

(2) Sem:

(Dolichos lablab), Lobia (Vigna sinensis), Pea (Pisum sativum) are used as vegetables. Leaves of Trigonella are also used as vegetable.

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(3) Groundnut (Archis hypogea). Its embryo is used is preparation of vegetables ghee. Soyabeen (Glycine soja)-from it a special type of milk is extracted which is rich in protein.

(B) Plants used in medicines:

(1) Clitoria ternatea : Leaves and flowers are used in snake bite.

(2) Desmodium gangetium : Roots are used in diarrhoea, cough, asthma, snake and scorpion bite.

(C) Fibre yielding plants:

(1) Crotolaria juncea = Sunn hemp

(D) Ornamental plants:

(1) Sesbanea grandiflora

(2) Butea monosperma

(3) Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea = wild pea)

(E) Plants used in manufacture of Dyes:

(1) Indigofera tinctoria

(2) Erythrina variegata

(3) Pterocarpus santalinus (red sandal wood)

(F) Timber yielding plants:

(1) Dalbergia sissoo (Shesham)

(G) Spice yielding plants:

(1) Trigonella Foenum graecum (methi)

Systemic position:

Division – Angiospemae

Class – Dicotyledonae

Sub-class – Polypetalae

Series – Calyciflorae

Order – Rosales

Family – Leguminosae

Sub-family – Papilionatae

Sub-family Caesalpinoideae

Inflorescence:

Raceme, umbel or solitary flower.

Flower:

Bracteate or ebracteate, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, complete, zygomorphic, hypogynous.

Calyx:

Sepals 5, polysepalous, imbricate aestivation.

Corolla:

Petals 5, polypetalous, ascending imbricate aestivation.

Androecium:

10 stamens, or staminodes are found in cassia, free filaments of unequal size, anther lobes bilocular, introse, versatile.

Gynoecium:

Monocarpellary, unilocular ovary superior, marginal placentation, stigma capitate.

Fruit: Legume

Economic Importance

(A) Plants used in Medicines:

(1) Cassia occidentalis: In skin diseases.

(2) C. glauca: Bark & leaves are used in diabetes & gonorrhea.

(3) C. fistula: Fleshy mass of fruits is used as purgative.

(4) Tamarindus indica : Its fruits and leaves are used in digestion.

(B) Plants used as food:

(1) Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar) buds are used as vegetables.

(C) Plants used in Dye Manufacture:

(1) Hematoxylon campechianum

(2) Caesalpinea sappam

(D) Plants used in leather tanning:

The bark of some of the species of Bauhinia and Caesalpinia is used in leather tanning.

(E) Ornamental plants:

(1) Delonix regia: Gulmohar.

(2) Caesalpinia pulcherima: Peacock flower.

(3) Saraca indica: Ashok.

(4) Cassia fistula: Amaltas.

Sub-family Mimosoideae

Inflorescence:

Head or capitulum or spike. Flowers arranged in acropetal succession.

Flower:

Bracteate or ebracteate, sessile, hermaphrodite, complete, actinomorphic hypogynous, pentamerous.

Calyx:

Sepals 4-5, gamosepalous, connate at the base, valvate aestivation.

Corolla:

Petals 4-5, gamopetalous, or polypetalous, membranous, valvate aestivation.

Androecium:

Stamens many, free in many whorls, filaments long, dithecous, introse.

Gynoecium:

Monocarpellary, unilocular, ovary superior, style long, cylindrical, stigma single and capitate, marginal placentation.

Fruit: Lomentum.

Economic Importance

(1) Timber yielding plants: Albizia lebbek (Sires) Adenanthera pavonina.

(2) Fibres yielding plants: Acacia leucophloea.

(3) Gum yielding plant: Acacia sps.

(4) Perfume yielding plant-Acacia famesiana : Its flowers are used to extract perfume.

(5) Ornamental plants: Neptunia oleracea, Prosopis spicigera, Mimosa pudica, Pitheclobium dulce.

(6) Dye yielding plant: From the heart wood of Acacia catechu a dye ‘Kathha’ is obtained.

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