Herbs, occassionally shrubs.
Tap root system.
Herbaceous, erect or creeping, or climbing, cylindrical, glabro us but sometimes slightly pubescent as in Hydrocotyle javanica, branched and green, generally fistular.
Alternate, rarely opposite, petiolate, exstipulate, usually compound, sometimes decompound as in Daucus, sometimes simple, sheathing leaf base, unicostate reticulate venation, (Heterophylly is noticeable in Coriandrum sativum when plant is very old.
Generally compound umbel, sometimes simple umbel, surrounded by an involucre of bracts.
Pedicellate, sometimes sessile in Hydrocotyle, bracteate, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic (Flowers become zygomorphic in Conandrum when the outer flowers posses unequal corolla), epigynous and complete.
5 sepals, gamosepalous teeth may be present, calyx tube adnate to the ovary wall.
5 petals, polypetalous, reflexed, sometimes inflexed as in Foeniculum occasionally lobes are unequal as in coraindrum, imbricate aestivation.
Stamens 5, polyandrous, anthers dorsifixed, filaments long.
Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, bilocular axile placentation, situated anterio- posteriorly with one ovule each loculus, style two, stigma two surrounded by a honey disc called stylopodium.
It is a schizocarpic cremocarp, containing two mericarps, joined by a carpophore.
The flowers are aggregated in dense inflorescence, possess attractive corolla and also some fragrant odour so the insects are attracted by them. The pollination is therefore entomophilous. The pollination takes place chiefly through flies and bettles.
Hydrocotyle javanica & H. asiatica, Apium greveolens is a biennial herb, where roots and seeds are sometimes eaten. Carum captiuum is cultivated for its fruits, which are used as condiments and also medicinally important. C. carui has fruits which give an important condiments-the carraway (Zeera).
Foeniculum vulgare (Saunf) important condiment.
Peucedanum greveolens glabrous herb with linear pinnate leaves and is based as vegetables (Vernacular- Soya)
Coriandrum sativum (Coriander; Dhania) is cultivateed for its leave which make good sauce and fruits are important condiment for flavouring curries. It is also medicinally important.