Get complete information on Family Rosaceae

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Habit:

Creeping herbs, scapigenous herbs with creeping stolon, perennial herbs, erect or climbing shrubs and trees.

Root:

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Tap root system, adventitious roots appear where plants are grown or cultivated by cutting or any other method of vegetative reproduction.

Stem:

Herbaceous to woody, erect, or trailing by means of runners or suckers, climbers and underground creeping stem in Rubus chamaemorus, cylindrical, sometimes prickly or thorny, branched and solid.

Leaves:

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Alternate, petiolate, stipulate, stipules adnate (Rosa) or caducous (Pyrus) simple or compound, sometimes simple and compound are found in the same genus margin of the leaf or leaflet is entire or serrate, leaf base conspicuous, unicostate reticulate venation.

Inflorescence:

Solitary axillary, raceme, cyme, spike like raceme, corymb, terminal corymb, compound corymb, terminal cyme, terminal panicle, corymbose, sub-umbellat, axillary or terminal corymbose panicle and dense panicle.

Flower:

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Pedicellate, bracteate, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, generally actinormorphic bul sometimes zygormorphic, hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous, complete, tetra or pentamerous.

Calyx:

5 or 4 sepals, gamosepalous, imbricate or valvate aestivation. Sometimes epicalyx is present as in Fragaria while in Rosa sepals may be foliaceous.

Corolla:

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Petals 5 or multiples of 5; polypetalous, rosaceous, conspicuous, attractive, imbricate aestivation. In cultivated species petals increase and become indefinite as stamens are said to be converted into petals or petal like structures. Rarely petals may be absent as in Archimilla.

Androecium:

Stamens many, arranged one or more than one whorl, rarely the stamens may be four as in Archimilla (number varies from 1 to 4), polyandrous usually incurved in bud, anthers are small and filaments are generally long.

Gynoecium:

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Carpels one too many one in Prunus, 2 in Agremonin, 2 to 5 in Pyrus, 1 to 5 in Crataegus, many in Rosa. When more than one, condition may be syn or apocurpous, ovary superior or inferior, unilocular when carpel is one or locules as many as the number of carpels, basal to marginal placentation in Pyrus, generally two ovules, each loculus when placentation is axile.

Fruit:

Drupe in Prunus, pome in pyrus, berry in Eriobotrya, etaerio of drupes in Rubus, follicle in Neillia, etaerio of achenes in Potentilla, etario of follicles in Spiraea.

Pollination: By insects mostly, by wind in Poterium.

Economic importance

Fruit and ornamental plants.

(1) Prunus: Fruits P. persica (Peach), P. armeniaca, P. uddcum, P. communis (Alucha). Fruit oil P. amygodalus (Badam).

(2) Rubus: R. ellipticus and R. lasiocarpus are important species popularly known as ‘Black berry’.

(3) Fragaria indica wild variety of strawberry.

(4) Potentilla supina herb growing on moist places or near banks.

(5) Rosa: Ornamental of various colours like pink, yellow, red, purple black or even green.

(6) Pyrus Fruits P. Communis (Chinapear, Nashpati) or P. malus, P. sinensis (nakh), Malus sylvestris (apple).

(7) Crataegus cramilate evergreen glabrous shrub.

(8) Eriobotrya japonica the loqual tree is cultivated for its fruits.

Systemic Position:

Angiospermae

Dicotyledons

Polypetalae

Calyciflorae

Rosales

Rosaceae.

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