Get complete information on Cytoplasmic hybrids (Cybrids or heteroplast)


Plant or cell which is a cytoplasmic hybrid produced by fusion of a protoplast and cytoplast. They can be formed by removal of one of the nuclei after the formation of heterokaryon or fusion between a normal protoplast with a protoplast having a non­viable nucleus or selective loss of genome of one of the nuclei.

Biotechnology :

It is the controlled use of biological agents, such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use.


Microorganisms were first used to produce some organic compounds like citric acid, following the First World War Subsequently a variety of products, including antibiotics. In addition, animal and plant cells cultured in vitro are used to obtain several valuable products.

In some cases, genetic improvements have enhanced the levels of production e.g., Penicillin yield has been improved by a factor of about 1000. However, there has been no change in the type of product. These activities are called as old biotechnology.

Modern biotechnology:

Use of genetic engineering/recombinant technology to enhance productivity and obtain new products from microorganisms, plant and animal cells.


Recombinant protein:

The protein produced by transgenes (expressed in transgenic cells or organisms). These proteins cannot be naturally produced by the concerned cells/ organisms.

The first useful commercial product of transgenic microorganisms was the synthesis of human insulin by bacterium Escherichia coli with the help of newly inserted human insulin gene.

Application of biotechnology:


The products of biotechnology are food (bread, sauce, dosa etc.) dairy products (yoghurt, butter etc.) alcoholic beverages (beer, wine etc.), nonalcoholic beverages (coffee beans, tea leaves etc.), sewage treatment, Biogas (Gobar gas), biofertilizers, organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid etc.), enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins, hormones/ insulin, growth hormone etc.), tissue culture, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, transplants, (test tube babies, embryo transplant etc.), genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology etc.), steroids etc.

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