General Knowledge test! Can you really answer these questions?


101. A tight cluster of houses surrounded by the fields of the villagers is

(a) Scattered settlement

(b) Linear settlement


(c) Nucleated settlement

(d) Circular settlement

102. Scattering of homestead settlement are not found in

(a) Himalayan foothills


(b) In the highlands of Gujarat

(c) Satpura range of Maharashtra

(d) Plains of Uttar Pradesh

103. Scattering of homestead type of settlement were generally found in


(a) Sea shore

(b) Near forests

(c) Hill areas

(d) Near river


104. Book ‘A Rajasthan Village’ written by

(a) Brij Raj Chauhan

(b) Bhandarkar

(c) Yogendra Singh


(d) K.L. Sharma

105.Whom of the following considers village as a ‘Little Republic’?

(a) B.R. Ambedkar

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Lai Bahadur Shashtri

(d) Ram Manohar Lohia

106. In order to explain the process of urbanisation, which of the following aspects can one ignore?

(a) Economic aspect

(b) Socio-cultural aspect

(c) Educational aspect

(d) The demographic and spatial aspects

107. When, due to the attraction of new opportunities, people migrate to the town it is known as

(a) Pull factor of migration

(b) Push factor of migration

(c) Both of the above

(d) None of the above

108. In the early colonial period in the urban areas the structure of economic opportunities of people in the urban areas was

(b) Minimised

(b) Enlarged

(c) Remained the same

(d) Constantly in flux

109. The metropolitan centres are a class by themselves characterised by large scale consumption, and large quantum of inflow of people, goods services and information. Who give this opinion?

(a) M.S.A. Rao

(b) Prakash Rao

(c) A.M. Shah

(d) I.P. Desai

110. While describing the urban places, the Indian census records consistently employ population size to classify the urban areas into________ classes.

(a) Three

(b) Four

(c) Five

(d) Six

111. Book ‘Anatomy of Rururban Community’ is written by

(a) M.S.A. Rao

(b) Patrick Geddess

(c) G.S. Ghurye

(d) A.M. Shah

112.Among which tribal group, is the youngest son the inheritor of property and stays along with his parents?

(a) Masai of Kenya

(b) Lushai of Mizoram

(c) Bhil of central India

(d) Meena of Rajasthan

113. Which among the following is a criterion for a place to be a town or urban area?

1. A minimum of 5,000 persons

2. At least 75% of the working occupations are non-agricultural

3. A density of not less than 400 persons per kilometer


(a) 2, 3

(b) 1 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) 1 and 2

114. In which year ‘urban area’ was redefined taking into account the economic characteristics in addition to other administrative and demographic features?

(a) 1951

(b) 1981

(c) 1961

(d) 1971

115. Class I city/town should have a population of

(a) 1, 00,000 and more

(b) 10,000 and more

(c) 10, 00,000 and more

(d) 1, 00, 00,000 and more

116. Towns or urban areas have certain limitation in accommodating population, providing civic amenities or catering to such needs as schooling, hospital, etc. Beyond certain optimum capacities, it becomes difficult for town administration to provide facilities for the increasing population. This situation may be termed as

(a) Civic difficulty

(b) Paradoxes

(c) Over-urbanisation

(d) Urbanisation

117. Which of the following are the characteristic features of sub urbanisation?

1. A sharp increase in the urban non- agricultural uses of land

2. Inclusion of surrounding areas of towns within its municipal limit

3. Intensive communication of all types


(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 1 and 3

(d) 1 and 2

118. Urban density for Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Assam lessened during 1961-71 decade, possibly because of

(a) Lesser fertility among woman

(b) Outward migration of people

(c) High death rate

(d) Topography of these states.

119. Which among the following statements were true?

1. Calcutta was the only city with a population of over a million in 1901

2. Bombay crossed the one million mark in 1911

3. Delhi and Madras entered into this category in 1921

4. Hyderabad had become million cities in 1951

(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(b) 1, 2 and 3

(c) 2, 3 and 4

(d) 1, 2 and 4

120. Urbanisation accompanies economic development because economic development entails a massive shift of labour and other inputs from predominantly, rural sectors to those predominantly urban. Whose opinion is this?

(a) Park and Burgess

(b) Mill and Becker

(c) Park and Redfield

(d) MSA Rao and A.M. Shah

121. “Urbanisation as catalyst for economic development and that the towns and cities, despite their problems are for the millions and millions of our people serves as the road to a better future.” Whose opinion is this?

(a) National Commission on Urbanisation of India.

(b) Economic Survey of India

(c) Industrial Survey of India

(d) Urban Municipalities

122. Who was on the opinion that people in Calcutta rank themselves in caste hierarchy?

(a) R.K. Mukherjee

(b) D.P Mukherjee

(c) Ramkrishna Mukherjee

(d) L. Dumont

123. Who has observed that the rikshawalas of Lucknow belonging to several religious and caste groups exhibit uniformity in the pattern of interaction and attitudes in respect to their common occupation?

(a) Harold Gould

(b) D.P. Mukherjee

(c) Yogendra Singh

(d) Sachchidanand

124. The National council on Urbanisation has recommended that at least ______of all new development should be earmarked for the use of the economically weaker sections of the urban population.

(a) 30%

(b) 20%

(c) 25%

(d) 15%

125. Who has shown that “the intellectual and ritualistic approaches to God are being discarded in favour of the devotional approach which is more catholic and suited to urban conditions in Madras city”?

(a) Pauline Kolenda

(b) M.N. Srinivas

(c) T.K. Oomen

(d) Milton Singer

126. Who among the following has pointed out that urbanisation in South India has a caste component?

(a) M.N. Srinivas

(b) Andre Beteille

(c) A.M. Shah

(d) T.K. Oomen

127. What are the recent trends in the urban population in India?

(a) A steady increase

(b) A state of stagnation

(c) Both of the above

(d) None of the above

128. The spatial feature of urbanisation in India has been

(a) Localised in nature

(b) Balanced in nature

(c) None of the above

(d) Both of the above

129. The book ‘Urban Sociology in India’ is written by

(a) G.S. Ghurye

(b) Patrick Geddess

(c) M.S.A. Rao

(d) R.K. Mukherjee

130. Book ‘Process and Institutions in Urban India’ is written by

(a) S. Saberwal

(b) Milton Singer

(c) Oscar Lewis

(d) Patrick Geddess

131. The crucial feature of a city is the presence of a market and a specialised class of traders in it. Who holds this?

(a) Milton Singer

(b) Gordon Childe

(c) George Simmel

(d) Robert Park

132. The simplest definition of Urban Social structure has been given in terms of

(a) Demographic

(b) Industry

(c) Education

(d) Professions

133. The degree of urbanism of any given community is indicated by its______ of population.

1. Size

2. Profession

3. Density

4. Heterogeneity

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2, 3 and 4

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 3 and 4

134. Bring out the features, which characterise urban social relations

1. Face to face contact

2. Impersonality

3. Informality

4. Superficiality


(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(b) 2 and 4

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 2, 3 and 4

135. Who has pointed out that when there is some serious illness and people need to utilise the hospital facilities not available locally, member of the family and close kin residing in the bigger cities are called in for help?

(a) M.N. Srinivas

(b) A. Beteille

(c) I.P. Desai

(d) Milton Singer

136. Who has argued that a modified version of traditional India joint family is consistent with urban and industrial setting?

(a) A.M. Shah

(b) M.N. Srinivas

(c) Milton Singer

(d) Max Weber

137. Who has shown that there has not been any marked change in the traditional family and kinship system in the urban areas?

(a) Pauline Kolenda

(b) Sylvia Vatuk

(c) M.S.A. Rao

(d) I.P. Desai

138. Which of the following statements is correct?

1. Joint family is an institution of rural India associated with agrarian economy

2. There is no direct correlation between urbanisation and secularisation

3. There is no direct correlation between urb­anisation and separate nuclear household

4. The traditional correlation between caste and occupation has weakened in urban areas.


(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 3 and 4

(d) 2, 3 and 4

139. Book, ‘Process and Institution in Urban India’ is written by

(a) S. Sabarwal

(b) M.S.A. Rao

(c) A.M. Shoh

(d) R.C. Sarikwal

140. The book ‘Sociology of a Growing Town’ is written by

(a) Bombwal

(b) R.C. Sarikwal

(c) M. Weber

(d) Louis Wirth

141. Whose studies, considered the Indian village as a ‘closed’ and isolated system?

1. Munro

2. Maine

3. Karl Marx

4. Baden Powell


(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(b) 1 and 3

(c) 2 and 4

(d) 1, 2 and 4

142. “The Indian City, old or modern, is Indian just as an American city is American. Nothing is gained by imagining that the word ‘city’ automatically implies certain comparable features.” Whose opinion is this?

(a) D.F. Pocock’s

(b) Oscar Lewis

(c) Robert Redfield

(d) Louis Wirth

143. Who among the following has rejected the notion of dichotomy between rural and urban and also the view that urbanisation is an independent variable?

(a) R.K. Mukherjee

(b) Louis Wirth

(c) K. Ishwaran

(d) Milton Singer

144. Rao M.S.A classifies urban studies into three categories. Which of the following is not a one?

(a) Those which formulate the cultural role of cities in the context of social organisation of the great tradition

(b)Those concerned with the institutional approaches

(c) Those treating cities and their growth in the general context of history of civilization.

(d)Those concerned with the little tradition.

145. According to whom does city consisted of middle classes and groups engaged in trade and commerce?

(a) Pirenne

(b) Coulanges

(c) Toynbee

(d) Geddes

146. Who observes that the great tradition is basically an urban phenomenon, and transformation of the little tradition into the great tradition refers to the process of urbanisation?

(a) Robert Redfield

(b) Louis Wirth

(c) Milton Singer

(d) Coulanges

147. Who has provided a typology of the city in terms of orthogenetic and heterogenetic processes of change in the organisation of tradition and culture?

(a) Robert Redfield

(b) Oscar Lewis

(c) Sjoberg

(d) Louis Wirth

148. Who distinguishes cities into pre-industrial and industrial?

(a) Gideon Sjoberg

(b) Spengler

(c) Mumford

(d) Toynbee

149. He refers to the notion of “degree of urbanisation” as a useful conceptual tool for understanding rural – urban relations. He also prefers the concept of rural – urban continuum.

Name the sociologist.

(a) Ghurye

(b) Mumford

(c) R.K. Mukherjee

(d) Oscar Lewis

150. Who has analysed kinship, caste, class, religion and displaced or non-placed conditions in his study of the city of Chandigarh?

(a) Yogendra Singh

(b) Victor D’ Souza

(c) Patrick Geddes

(d) M.N. Srinivas


102. (b)

103. (c)

104. (a)

105. (b)

106. (b)

107. (d)


109. (b)

110. (c)


112. (a)

113. (c)

114. (a)

115. (b)

116. (d)

117. (b)

118. (a)

119. (c)

120. (a)


122. (d)

123. (a)

124. (a)

125. (a)

126. (c)

127. (a)

128. (b)

129. (a)

130. (d)


132. (c)

133. (c)

134. (b)

135. (c)

136. (a)

137. (b)

138. (a)

139. (a)

140. (a)


142. (a)

143. (c)

144. (a)

145. (a)

146. (c)

147. (b)

148. (b)

149. (c)

150. (a)

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