The history of agriculture is the story of man’s progress in controlling for his own advantage the plants that make products useful to him by applying his knowledge. The country has also one of the largest agricultural areas in the world. The green revolution in India initiated as technology mission to increase agricultural productivity during 1960s. The food grain production no doubt has increased to comfortable level but there are serious limitations to the seed- fertilizer technology. It has also not solved the problems like low yields and crop imbalances.
The ecological dimensions of the new agricultural technology need to be carefully evaluated and thus a revolution in agricultural technology in the need of the times. Although agricultural productivity is vital but environmental protection is equally important. Also technology must be both affordable by, and geared to the needs of the poor and under nourished people. As a factor in farm and rural development, infusion of two apparently disparate technologies i.e. agricultural biotechnology and information technology is expected to catalyse programme changes. Agricultural biotech and InfoTech together are helping to create new tools to attack the problem of rural poverty, generate employment of farm productivity and production, improvement quality and explore marketing and income generating opportunities in newer days.
However, the technological changes in Indian agriculture started in 1960s when access to modern inputs, especially high yielding variety of seeds, fertilizers, mechanization, credit and marketing facilities improved. The central government also introduced intensive area development programme in 1960. New yielding varieties of wheat developed in Mexico and the rice developed in Philippines were brought to India. In addition to HYV sees, chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides were also introduced and irrigation facilities improved and expanded.
The widespread adoption of high yielding variety of wheat, Jawar maize increased their production. The machanisation of farm which introduced during the green revolution period is slowly making in roads ever since its inception in 1960s. But the pace of farm mechanization has been more spectacular in the states like Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh.
The most remarkable achievement of the new technologies in the substantial increase in the production and productivity of foodgrains. As a result to improvement in High yielding seeds varieties the wheat has registered six fold increase in the production and rice recorded nearly three fold increase. Consequently the country is self sufficient in food grains. But there is still need to improve the quality of seeds, irrigation technology, foodgrain storage technology etc.