Physical elements such as climate, relief, soil, human factors such as density of population, technological develop­ment, traditions, social, economic and political factors have great impact on the farming practices, production methods and cropping pattern.

Plantation agriculture

1. Plantation agriculture is the practice of fanning in which crops are cultivated on hundreds of hectares of land in a highly specialised form on the lines of factory organization.

2. In plantation agriculture a particular crop is sown once and the yield is generally obtained continuously for a number of years.


3. Plantation agriculture is done in the areas having high temperature and continual rain-fall.

4. Plantation agriculture requires a long growing period.

5. Rubber, tea, coconut, bananas etc. are plantation crops.

6. It is practised in Kerala, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.


Commercial agriculture

1. Commercial agriculture is the practice of farming in which crops are raised on a large scale with a view to export them to other countries and earn money.

2. Purpose of commercial agriculture is to sell the produce for money.

3. Commercial agriculture is done mostly in sparsely populated areas.


4. Commercial agricultural crop may be grown under any pattern of agriculture.

5. Wheat, Cotton, Sugarcane, Corn, etc. are commercial crops.

Intensive farming

1. Intensive farming is a type of agriculture aiming at maximum possible production on the limited farms with all efforts possible under the circumstances.


2. Huge capital and human labour is employed on every hectare of land.

3. Intensive farming is capable of raising more than one crop a year.

4. It is practised in most parts of thickly population.

Extensive farming


1. It is a modern system of farming done on large farms. It is also known as mechanical farming due to extensive use of machines.

2. Employment of labour and capital per hectare of land is comparatively less.

3. Extensive farming raises only one crop a year.

4. It is practised in sparsely populated area like USA, Canada, Russia and Australia.


Dry Farming

1. Dry farming is that type of farming in which moisture is maintained by raising special type of crops.

2. This is practised in dry areas of the country such as Western, North­western India and Central India.

3. Moisture maintaining crops are raised in this practice of farming. Gram and peas are important such crops.

4. There is vast dependence on irrigation.

Wet farming

1. Wet farming is a type of farming which depends mainly upon rains.

2. This type of farming is prevalent in the North, North-eastern, Eastern India and on the Western slopes of the Western Ghats.

3. In this types of farming rice, jute and mesta are grown.

4. There is no irrigation required.