It is difficult to tell the origin in human society. Truly speaking it is shrouded in mystery and it still remains one of the secrets of science. The views of sociologists on the theory of primitive promiscuity change almost as rapidly as fashions, and are much influenced by the subjective attitudes of loading authorities for or against.
The most agitated question on this topic is that human begins, by natural inclination are polygamous or monogamous? We all know that the sexual impulse in human beings is polygamous or rather varietiest, i.e. it is attracted by novely and change. However science cares more for truth than obvious beliefs and as such certain scientists have started advancing a theory that humanity by nature is monogamous. The arguments in favour of monogamy are as follows:
1. It is argued that general numerical equality of male and female adults in human communities go to show that Nature’s plan indicates monogamy. But even if equality was absolute which infect is not it may prove at the most that polyandry or polygamy are unnatural but it won’t prove that monogamy is instinctive. For evidently ten men and ten women might just as easily live in a ground marriage or total promiscuity as in ten separate marriages.
2. The advocates of the monogamous theory point out that no existent race has been found to practice absolutely indiscriminate sexual promiscuity. It is contended that even the most primitive and nomadic savages lived in families and knew the institution of marriage. This argument is certainly erroneous. It rests on the confusion in people’s minds between prehistory and the conditions and achievements of the lowest grade of hunting nomads known to us.
3. The monogamists ask if the people are not naturally monogamous why do they live in separate families even in primitive types. The answer is plain.
Not monogamous instinct and not indeed, any motive of sexual kind, but economic need and economic convenience have founded the marriage tie of primitive man.
4. It has been contended that the immense majority of contemporary primitive peoples live in monogamy, but a monogamy, not of inclination, but of necessity. In fact the most frequent type of primitive marriage is monogamous.
5. It has been argued that natural jealousy of mankind makes indiscriminate sexual relations wholly impossible. However this argument is not admissible sexual jealously does not disapprove the polygamous instinct. The probability is in the opposite directions.
6. The monogamists base their arguments on the physiology of reproduction. It has been declared that women who habitually copulated with different man become sterile. The assertion somewhat ill supported by evidence is based on the sterility of professional prostitutes.
The argument of the monogamists therefore is based on the conditions of particular class, in which case sterility may be due to some other causes. In case of prostitute continuous and indiscriminate genital connection causes morbid local irritation which injures the fertility of a women. But those conditions do not obtain in a horde of savages.
Even the factual evidence do not support the monogamous marriage systems view. In India polygamy is practiced even now and yet it did not show any signs of sterility in women. In fact in agricultural countries polygamous marriages were popular as an incentive to increase manpower.
In short, we have seen by now that all arguments put forward in favour of the instinctively monogamous nature of humanity fail before careful scrutiny. Let us therefore turn to the arguments in favour of polygamous theory.
7. Many authority have tried to prove primitive or prehistoric mankind had a special mating season and hence sexual congress could only have occurred at certain definite times of the year. Permanent monogamous mating is incompatible with any special intensive sexual activity in recurrent seasons.
8. On a analogical grounds it is argued that among the gregarious and social mammals, no species has till now been found to practice exclusively monogamous paring and parental responsibility in the herd.
9. Many people believe that monogamous marriage is unnatural and illicit innovation. According to Scidlitz, exclusive union between man and woman seemed to be covers of the Camases illicit and disgraceful.
10. The trend of polygamous ideas and habits have given the prostitutes an honourable position especially in antiquity.
11. Religious prostitution also point out in the direction of polygamous nature of man.
12. It is argued on the basis of biogenetic law that wherever free intercourse with girls of their own age is suppressed and penalised by religion or law, prostitution appears forthwith as part of the social organism.
13. With the awakening and differentiation of individuality the polygamous urge becomes transfigured into romantic love among civilized persons who tend to prefer one and the one object to love, above all other objects.
14. The reason to believe in the naturalness of polygamous inclination in mankind is the force and the universality with which the primitive love of novelty promiscuity breaks forth, as soon as the pressure of circumstances and public opinion is relaxed.
There have been period of ‘moral decadence’ among civilized people. “If we expel nature with a pitch fork-back it comes a gallop.” In short, the love of sexual novelty and variety is innately human and has not been eradicated by force on fear, or even by moral developments of culture and progress.