Complete information on Congress and Government of India Act

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The British Parliament passed the Government of India Act of 1935. The election were held and the Congress was able to get majority in six out of the 11 provinces. Only the provincial part of the Act was put into practice. The Governors were given special powers and special responsibilities.

The Congress asked the Governors to give an assurance that they would not interfere in the day- to-day affairs of the ministers. They declined to give such an assurance and the Congress refused to form the ministries. At last the Governors under instruction from the Governor-General gave an assurance that they would not interfere in the day-to-day affairs of the ministers and the Congress formed ministries in July 1937.

The Second World War started in September 1939. The Congress asked the British Government to declare whether the War Aims of the Allies would apply to India or not. The British Government refused to make such a declaration and the Congress ministries resigned in November 1939.

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cripps proposals

The British Cabinet sent Sir Stafford Cripps in March, 1942 with certain proposals. The Indians were to have the right of making their constitution after the war. All the departments, except Defence, were to be at one transferred to Indian hands. The Congress was prepared to accept the long-term scheme and not the interim scheme. Moreover the Congress did not like the attitude of ‘take it or leave it’ because it left scope for negotiations. The Cripps Mission was a failure.

Quit India movement

All India Congress Committee passed Quit India Resolution on 8th of August 1942. The Government arrested Mahatma Gandhi and all the members of the Congress Working Committee. The Congress organisation was banned and the police took possession of its offices.

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The people reacted violently and revolted. There was collapse of the machinery of the Government at several places. Jinnah was taken by surprise by the Quit India Movement and declared that the object of the movement was not only to turn out of the British but also to subjugate the Muslims. He asked the Muslims to keep aloof. The Muslims League began to raise slogans for the division of India.

Cabinet mission plan, partition and independence

The Labour Government sent Cabinet Mission to India in 1946 with certain proposals which are popularly known as Cabinet Mission Plan. It could not bring about a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League.

Then it announced its own proposals on 16th of May 1946. These were a compromise between the Muslim League demand for Pakistan and the Congress demand for united India. The scheme was rejected by the Congress and accepted by the Indian hands.

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The Congress was prepared to accept the long-term scheme and not the interim scheme. Moreover the Congress did not like the attitude 0f ‘take it or leave it’ because it left scope for negotiations. The Cripps Mission was a failure.

Quit India movement

All India Congress Committee passed Quit India Resolution on 8th of August 1942. The Government arrested Mahatma Gandhi and all the members of the Congress Working Committee. The Congress organization was banned and the police took possession of its offices.

The people reacted violently and revolted. There was collapse of the machinery of the Government at several places. Jinnah was taken by surprise by the Quit India Movement and declared that the object of the movement was not only to turn out of the British but also to subjugate the Muslims. He asked the Muslims to keep aloof. The Muslims League began to raise slogans for the division of India.

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Cabinet mission plan, partition and independence

The Labour Government sent Cabinet Mission to India in 1946 with certain proposals which are popularly known as Cabinet Mission Plan. It could not bring about a compromise between the Congress and the Muslim League. Then it announced its own proposals on 16th of May 1946.

These were a compromise between the Muslim League demand for Pakistan and the Congress demand for united India. The scheme was rejected by the Congress and accepted by the League. Then the Congress accepted it and the Muslim League rejected it. The Muslim League observed 16th of August as the Direct Action Day. Thousands of Hindus were killed and a lot of property was burnt at Calcutta.

Pundit Jawarhal Lai Nehru Formed interim Government on September 2, 1946. There were riots in Noakhali and Bihar. The Muslim League joined Interim Government with the idea of wrecking it. There was confusion in the country.

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The British Prime Minister Attlee declared that the British would leave India by June 1948. Lord Mountbatten was sent as Governor-General in March 1947 and he declared that the country would be divided as soon as possible. His June 3rd Plan was accepted by all the parties.

The British Parliament passed India Independence Act in July 1947 creating the Dominions of India and Pakistan. India became independent on 15th of August 1947. The Congress achieved the object of securing the independence but failed to keep the country undivided.

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