Colonialism and imperialism were important features of world history since the advent of geographical voyages.

The whole of Asia, Africa, Americas and Australia were converted into colonies of important European powers.

The colonization of such vast continents and many countries of the world were facilitated by economic and socio-cultural backwardness of the colonies. The European powers by dint of their new spirit of adventure established their sway over them. Technological and ideological superiority also aided them in their task. The colonial powers moreover hided their naked economic interests by advancing the slogan that they were on a civilizing mission.

However, the colonial powers despite their technological and military superiority could not prevent forces of modernization from creeping into colonies. The chief agency of modernization became the flow of ideas. Once modern education was introduced in the colonies, the people there got imbued with the ideas of liberty, equality, nationalism and democracy.


This enabled them to closely scrutinizing the economic and administrative policies of colonial powers. Further, they began to understand the true essence of colonial rule. Further, the socio-economic reform movements instilled a new spirit of self confidence and self assurance among the people of colonies. This led to rise of nationalism which gradually took organized form.

Once the national movements for liberation took the organised form in the colonies, it was just a matter of time before the colonial rule was uprooted from its roots. The rise of organized national movement under the influence of modern ideas of the west constitutes the ripening of colonies politically after which they won their independence from the mother colonial country.