Otto Von Bismarck, the architect of the German Unification, believed in a policy of blood and iron (militarism) to achieve his object.

Unmindful of the resistance offered by the popular House of the Prussian Diet, Bismarck embarked on an ambitious programme of militarisation. He not only raised a large number of soldiers but also imparted them training in the use of new weapons. As a result, the military strength of Prussia considerably increased. He asserted that significant problems could not be solved by mere speeches and public opinion but only through bloodshed and rattling of war weapons. He used his diplomatic skill not to win an ally to accomplish his work but to isolate his target to attack. He did not wait for international crises to render his task easier.

Having satisfied himself that Prussia was strong enough to challenge Austria, he picked up a quarrel with Austria by his skillful manipulation of the dispute between Germany and Denmark about the old question-control over the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

The Treaty of Prague gave Prussia the power to expel Austria from German affairs. The treaty arranged for a new federal constitution to be set up for Germany north of the amine, alongside an association of southern German states with an independent international existence.


The size of Prussia was thus enlarged. Its dominance in northern Germany was guaranteed. The Prussian king became the President of the North German confederation and her chancellor the federal chancellor. The Prussian army and postal system became federal pillars. Bismarck thus achieved no less and no more than what he intended. Bismarck apprehended possibility of war with France in near future.

He thought that only in the event of such a war could it be possible to overcome the reluctance of south German princes to enter the confederation. Far from using war to promote unification, Bismarck sought unification in order to continue war.

The war between France and Germany broke out in 1870 and ended in 1871. When, the war broke out, the South German states joined the North German Confederations and thereby completed the unification of Germany.