Biosphere reserves (Habitat preservation):
The biosphere reserve is a better method of preservation of wild flora and fauna than the national parks. This is an ecosystem oriented program and generally not opened to tourists. The biosphere reserve includes a core zone and a manipulation zone. The core zone represents a natural area where no exploitation of natural resources is allowed. The manipulation zone includes silvicultured forests and also trible settlements.
The first biosphere reserve to be established was the Niligiri biosphere reserve covering an area of 5,520 Sq. Kms. Other biosphere reserves are Nandadevi biosphere reserve, Great Nicobar reserves etc. The Niligiri biosphere reserve includes two national parks viz., the Bandipur national park and the Nagarhole national park.
Establishment of Zoos:
This is an age old method of Preserving and protecting wild life. In this, rare forms of wildlife are kept in cages or protected open areas. But according to environmentalists this is mainly for recreation of man rather than the natural protection of wildlife. In spite of the limitations imposed, zoos the world over have done yeomen services in captive breeding of many endangered species. Preservation of wildlife by the establishment of the zoos can be regarded as second best when compared to national parks.