The following are some of the basic or fundamental rights that a citizen should be guaranteed if he is to be free. These are political, economic and civic rights. Every person should have right to work, leisure and a decent living wage. He should be given free and compulsory education up to a certain standard, say higher secondary standard.

He should be able to acquire higher education irrespective of his economic circumstances, if he shows talent for that. Right to vote and election are primary political rights. Without these, a citizen cannot share political power and cannot make a contribution to the laws of the state.

Without such participation, he shall be frustrated. Right to speech, press, con­science, association and meeting are the basic civic rights. Without them a citizen can neither participate in political life nor can he lead creative and spontaneous social life. He cannot give a free expression to his social impulses. Every citizen should be equal before law; there should be no legal discrimination.

Without rule of law liberty cannot be safe; govern­ment might become arbitrary. Right to property is a sacred right. But property must be self earned and justifiable socially.


The enjoyment of these rights along with development of human personality must ensure promotion of social, common welfare. These rights, therefore, imply duties towards other citizens. If I demand rights I must not interfere with similar rights of my neighbor.

In the end we may conclude with Laski, “Every state is known by the rights that it maintains.”

But rights are co-relative with functions. We have no right to act against the society. We have rights against the government but not against the society.

Rights help a man to develop. The aim of the state is to help a man to develop. So “they are rights because they are useful to the end the state seeks to serve”.