100 Questions on Zoology Part-2 – Answered

101. What is the average life span of WBCs?

3-4 days.

102. Which are the two types of agranulocytes?

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Monocytes and lymphocytes.

103. Which are the types of granulocytes?

Basophils, eosilophils and neutrophils.

104. What are platelets?

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These are rounded, oval or disc like bodies present in the blood.

105. What is the name for abnormal increase of platelets?

Thrombocytosis.

106. What is the name for abnormal decrease of platelets?

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Thrombocytopenia.

107. Which chemical helps in the clotting of blood?

Thrombokinase.

108. What are thrombocytes?

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These are small spindled shaped cells found in the blood of vertebrates other than mammals.

109. Which are the components of lymph?

Plasma and leucocytes.

110. Name the cells that are found in lymph as well as blood?

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Leucocytes.

111. What is the name given to the cytoplasm of muscle fibres?

Sarcoplasm.

112. What is sarcolemma?

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The plasma membrane that binds the muscle fibres is called the sarcolemma.

113. Name the types of muscle tissues?

Smooth muscles, striated muscles and cardiac muscles.

114. What are arrector pili?

Connective tissues that surround bundles of smooth muscle fibres are called arrector pili and are present at the base of hairs.

115. What are involuntary muscles?

Smooth muscles that undergo slow and rhythmic contraction regulated by the autonomous nervous system are called involuntary muscles.

116. What are voluntary muscles?

The striated muscles are also called voluntary muscles.

117. What is Henson’s line?

A light zone present in the A band of striated muscles are called Henson’s line.

118. What is I band?

The light colored band present in the striated muscles is called I band.

119. What is membrane of Kraus?

The dark line present in the centre of I band in striated muscles is called the membrane of Kraus.

120. What is a Z band?

The membrane of Kraus is also called as Z band.

121. What is an A band?

The dark bands present in the striated are called A band.

122. What is a sarcomere?

The portion of the myofibril between two Z bands is called a Sarcomere.

123. What are intercalated discs?

The specialised regions of the membrane at the end of the fibres in cardiac muscles bringing about cris cross junction are called intercalated discs.

124. Name the components of nervous tissues?

Neurons, nerve fibres and neuroglia.

124. What is a neuron?

Also called the nerve cell it is the basic structural unit of the nervous tissue.

126 What are Nissle’s granules ?

The basophilic bodies present in the cytoplasm of the neuron are called Nissle’s granules.

127. What are dendrites?

These are small minute processes that arise from the cyton of the neu ron.

128. What is an axon?

This is a single long process that arises from the cyton of a neuron.

129. What is sheath of Schwann?

The thin membrane that covers the nerve fibres located outside the brain and spinal cord is called the sheath of Schwann.

130. What is axoplasm?

The cytoplasm of the axon is known as axoplasm.

131. What is neurilemma?

The membrane that covers the nerve fibres is called neurilemma.

132. What are lemnoblasts?

The sheath cells that constitute neurilemma are called lemonoblasts.

133. Which are the main types of nerve fibres?

Medulated nerve fibres and non medulated nerve fibres.

134. What are nodes of Ranvier?

The part of the medulated nerve fibre which lacks the medullary sheath is called node of Ranvier

135. Name the types of neurons?

Unipolar neurons, pseudounipolar neurons, bipolar neurons and multipolar neurons.

136. What are neuroglia?

The cells present in the nervous tissue which have no nucleoli in their nuclei are called neuroglia.

137. Name the types of neuroglia?

These are astroglia, oligodendroglia and mesoglia.

138. Name the four layers present in the wall of the small intestine?

Ouier seros coat, a muscular coat, a sub mucus coat and mucus mem brane.

139. What is chyme?

The food mixed with the acids that moves out of the stomach is called chyme.

140. What are plica circularies?

Circular folds present in the mucus membrane of the intestine are called plica circularies.

141. Where do you find crypts of liberkuhn ?

Present in the wall of the intestine between the bases of the villi.

142. What is succus entericus?

The cells lining the glands of lieberkuhn are called succus entericus.

143. What are cells of paneth?

The cells present at the base of crypts of lieberkuhn are called cells of paneth.

144. What is the function of Brunner’s glands?

They protect deudonal mucosa from the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin.

145. Where do you find Brunner’s glands?

They are present in the duodenum.

146. What are peyer’s patches?

These are lymphitic tissues scattered in the small intestine mainly present in the ileum.

147. Name the two important steps of digestion?

Mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

148. What is Uvula?

The cone shaped elongation which hangs down in the back of the mouth is called uvula.

149. Name the three types of papillae found on the tongue?

Circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and filiform papillae.

150. Name the three pairs of salivary glands?

These are perotide, submandibular and sublinguam.

151. What is the function of epiglottis?

It covers the glottis during the intake of food to prevent the entry of food into it.

152. What are the divisions of stomach?

Cardiac region, fundus body and pyloric region.

153. Where is ampulla of vater found?

Found in the duodenum.

154. What is the function of secretin?

It stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice.

155. What is the function of cholycystokinin?

It stimulates the gall bladder to empty the bile which is necessary for digestion of fat.

156 Where do you find kupfer cells?

They are found in the liver.

157. What is the function of glucagon?

It is concerned with the breakdown of glycogen in the liver.

158. Name the types of cells found in the islets of langerhans?

Alpha cells and beta cells.

159. Name the salts present in the bile?

Sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate.

160. Name the types of Jaundice?

Haemolytic jaundice, obstructive jaundice, hepatocellular jaundice.

161. What is hepatitis?

It is an infection of the liver caused due to virus infection.

162. Name the two types of ulcers?

Duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer.

163. What is homeostasis?

It refers to maintenance of balance to a particular situation in order to see that the metabolic pattern and the rate will not be altered.

164. What is glycogenolysis?

The breakdown of glycogen is called glycogenolysis.

165. Name the layers of pericardium?

Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium.

166. Which are the chambers of heart?

Right auricle, left auricle, right ventricle and left ventricle.

167. What is a systole?

The phase of contraction is known as systole

168. What is a diastole?

The phase of relaxation is known as diastole.

169. What is the function of bundle of HIS?

It helps in the conduction of heart beat.

170. Which is the pace maker of heart?

Syno aterial node acts as the pace maker of heart.

171. What is the function of the pacemaker in heart?

The heart impulses are generated here and radiate out from the heart.

172. Which are the components of conducting system of heart?

SA node, the AV node, bundle of HIS and purkinje fibres constitute the conducting system of the heart.

173. Which instrument measures the heart rate?

Electrocardiogram.

174. What is diastolic pressure?

The continuous pressure of the blood present in the arteries is the diastolic pressure.

175. What is systolic pressure?

The increased pressure that occurs with each heart beat is called systolic pressure.

176. What is a sphygmomanometer?

This is an instrument measure blood pressure.

177. What is hypertension?

High blood pressure is called hypertension.

178. What is hypotension?

Low blood pressure is called hypotension.

179. What is apopletic stroke?

The bursting of the blood vessels leading to internal haemorrhage is called apoplectic stroke.

180. What is nephritis?

It is a disease of nephrons present in the kidneys.

181. What is endocarditis?

The inflammation or swelling of the endocardium is endocarditis.

182. What is myocarditis?

This is inflammation of myocadrium.

183. What is pericarditis?

Inflammation of pericardium is pericarditis.

184. What is myocardial infarction?

This refers to the death of a small area of the tissue of the heart due to lack of blood supply.

185. Define mitral stenosis?

There is obstruction of the forward flow of blood because of the valve leaflets fused together.

186. What is meant by mitral incompetence?

This refers to the incomplete closure of the valve resulting in back flow of blood from left ventricle to left auricle.

187. What is meant by blue hole in the heart?

It is a synotic heart disease where in there is a mixture venus blood with arterial blood.

188. What is patent ductus arteriosus?

This refers to non closure of the duct connecting the aorta to pulmo nary artery.

189. What is a cyanotic heart defect?

There is a mixture of venus blood with arterier blood.

190. What is tetralogy of Fallot?

See answer for question 189.

191. Name any two functions of nasal passages in human beings?

To prevent the enh ance of dust into the lungs. Hold and sweep minute organisms of bacteria.

192. Name the three parts of pharynx?

Nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngeal part.

193. Name the three hyaline cartilages found in the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and arytenoid cartilage.

194. Where do you find hyoid bone?

It lies between the mandible and larynx.

195. What is a bronchiole?

The ultimate small tubes of the bronchus.

196. Name the last part of a bronchiole?

Alveoli or air sacs.

197. Name the serous membrane covering the lungs?

The pleura.

198. What is hilum (with reference to man)?

Hilum is the region where the bronchus and pulmonary artery enter and the pulmonary veins leave the lung.

199. Define tidal volume of gases?

Volume of air inspire or expire in each normal growth is called tidal volume.

200. What is meant by vital capacity of lungs?

This is the maximum volume of air a person expires from the lungs after filling with a maximum deep inspiratory reserve volume plus the tidal volume plus the expiratory reserve volume.