Removal of unemployment is the responsibility, of the state. The constitution of India has the “Directive principles” of the state also and enjoined this duty on the State Government, Part IV of the constitution of India in its article 41 lays down that right to work; to education and to public assistance in certain castes the state shall within limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want.
In Rural Society, we have already seen that there is a good deal of unemployment. This removal of unemployment is necessary for the prosperity of the national. For this the following steps have to be taken:
1) Improvement in the agricultural system. 2) Adequate arrangement of facilities of irrigation 3) Increase the area of cultivable, and 4) Setting up and develop the cottage and village industries. 5) Improving the means of transport and communication 6) Construction of public steps and roads etc. 7) Organisation of the agricultural market.
1) Improvement in the agricultural system:
We have already seen that the agricultural system in India is backward and under developed. This backwardness is responsible for a lot of unemployment. If the unemployment has to be removed the system of agricultural has to be modernised and improved, for this the following steps to be taken—
1) Holding should be consolidated and made economic.
2) Methods of agriculture should be improved and as far as possible farmers should be tried from dependence on nature.
3) System of crops should be planned scientifically and improved. If more crops earned they would provide more employment.
1) The farmers should be provided with good seed, good fertiliser, healthy animals, modern implements and tools etc.
2) Adequate arrangement of facilities of irrigation:
In villages the agriculture very much depends on nature. If rains fall, the crops are destroyed. This brings about a good deal of unemployment. Methods of irrigation should be made more modern. They should also be adequate so that it may be possible for people to water of their fields.
In fact, India in such a vast country and unemployment is so large that ‘Herculean’ efforts shall have to be made to surmount this degree. Various economists and social thinkers have suggested various ways for it. Many of these ways have also been incorporated in the Five year Plan. Because of these Five Year Plans employment position is far from satisfactory.
Efforts made under various Five Year Plans to eradicate Unemployment in Rural Areas:
Since India gained independence, various attempts have been made to improve the employment position Five Year Plans, that have been drawn up have made it possible for the rural people to improve their employment position.
Efforts made during Second Five Year Plan to eradicate rural unemployment:
At the time of the beginning of the Second Five Year Plan, there were 53 lakhs of people who were without employment. It was expected that 100 lakhs more shall join this rank. The planners were faced with the task of providing employment to 153 crores of people within the period of 5 years and within the limited resources.
Efforts to eradicate unemployment in the rural areas during the 3rd Five Year Plan period:
It had been presumed that 150 lakhs of people shall be added to the number of the persons who shall require employment. Out of there 170 lakhs and 573 were to be increased in the rural area.
Fifth Five Year Plan and effects made of eradicated unemployment:
Besides of several economic difficulties the five Year Plan as such had to be postponed.
Fifth Five Year Plan and rural unemployment:
Despite the substantial increase of jobs during the Fourth Five year Plan. Unemployment has grown in the proportional terms. The Fifth Plan therefore, regards the employment problem as the most important challenge to be note. The Fifth Plan aims to accelerate the pace of employment. The need for greater self employment opportunities has therefore been emphasised and for this purpose major efforts would be made in agriculture small industry services. The Fifth Plan supposes to add more job opportunities.