Sociologists and anthropologists are largely interested in the processes of social change in India. Indian society has now taken up the task of changing itself from a colonial society and feudal society to a republican society; from an agricultural society to an industrial society; and a society based on caste system to a class- based society and not only that from a society of social classes to class-less society with equality of opportunity to every citizen of India.
Transformation of humans and social relationships is necessitated by the new social, political and economic system. Political freedom and formation of a federal republic, urbanisation and industrialisation on a vast scale and planned socio-economic development, introduction of rapid mode of transportation and communication, introduction of huge and modern banking institutions, establishment of technical and professional educational institutions and introduction of panchayati raj institutions have all transformed
Indian society. Therefore, it is a task of social scientists to study the nature of transformation and the nature of resistance to change.
Indian social system may be viewed as sticking to some positions along a continuum varying from maximum reluctance to change to maximum readiness to change. Socio- cultural survival depends upon a flexible approach which takes into account a situation which arises when factors inducing or necessitating change are operating. Such change- inducing factors may arrive from within or from without.
On the basis of anthropological data available it can be said that some primitive tribal communities are more reluctant to change while the more modern societies are more prone to change. It can be concluded that the simpler societies are less ready to change, while the more complex societies are more ready to change.