1. What are the two passes situated in the north-western mountains of India,state its importance?
Khyber and Gomal are the two passes located in the north-western part of India (now in Pakistan).
While India remained isolated due to the mountains it was through the mountain passes that foreign aggressors invaded India. Again, it was through the mountain passes that India could establish close contact with the outside world.
2. Essays on Vindhyas play an important role on India and her people?
It was largely because of the presence of the Vindhyas that south India remained immune from the foreign invasion compared to northern India.
Culturally speaking, the Dravidian civilization of south India could grow with its distinctive features unbroken because of the barrier of the Vindhyas.
Of course this does not mean that there was no interaction between the north and south through the historical times.
3. Why is India known as a country of mixed culture?
India is known as a country of mixed culture because various peoples like the Sakas, Hunas and others came to this country during the ancient period.
Later on, Muslims and Christians also appeared in the country.
These foreigners adopted the Indian culture and way of life giving rise to a mixed culture.
4. What is ‘archaeology’?
Archaeology is that branch of study which reveals the historical fact from the study of ancient material remains like the coins, monuments, epigraphs, etc.
It is said that the archaeological source is the most reliable of all the sources.
For, unlike literary sources the archaeological source cannot be manipulated.
5. Why foreign testimonies are to be used cautiously?
Foreign accounts are important source materials for the reconstruction of ancient Indian history.
But these arc to be used cautiously. For, many foreign travelers had no knowledge of the Indian languages.
6. What is ‘epigraphy’?
Epigraph or inscription is a document written on a slab of stone, pillar or on similar other materials.
Study of such writings is called epigraphy.
Epigraphically source is particularly helpful for the reconstruction of socio-economic history.
7. Why is coin an important source of the ancient Indian history?
Coin as a source for the study of ancient Indian history is very important.
It helps to know about the political and economic history.
Also it reveals the religious and cultural condition of the contemporary period.
8. How coins are helpful for knowledge about cultural history?
Coins are very important source of knowledge about ancient India.
It helps us to know about the names and dates of the respective rulers who issued them.
The coins also help us to know about the religion and culture of the respective periods.
For example, Samudragupta’s coin depicting him as a lyre player gives proof that he was a lover of instrumental music.
9. What is the origin of the name India?
India is a Greek word. It means the land of the river Indus (Sindh in Sanskrit.)
The Sanskrit name Sindhu became Hindu or Hindu in the ancient dialect of Iran. The Greeks turned it into Indos.
The Indo is the source of Indus or India.