(A) Plankton Stage:
Phytoplanktons (diatoms, flagellates, blue green algae and green algae) are the pioneers in a freshly formed water body. They are almost immediately followed by zooplanktons that feed on phytoplanktons. Plakton growth produces organic matter which gets mixed with bottom silt for growth of next stage.
(B) Submerged Stage:
Hydrilla, Potamogeton and Najas form dense growth at bottom enriched with organic matter.
(C) Floating Stage:
In the shallower regions appear plants with tuberous rhizomatous and creeping stems and leaves floating on the surface of water, e.g. Nymphaea, Nelumbo. at places, free floating plants also appear (e.g. Azolla, Wolffia, Lemna) to cover to the water surface. Humus rich bottom begins to rise making water shallower.
(D) Red Swamp Stage:
In shallower water, amphibian plants (with emergent leaves begin to grow (e.g. Sagittaria, Typha, Phragmites). They add more silt and humus at the bottom so that shoves built up.
(E) Sedge/Marsh Meadow Stage:
On newly built up shores, Larese (Sedge), Juncus, Cyperus, some grasses and herbs (Themeda.Caltha, Polygonum) grow rapidly and lower the water table.
(F) Woodland Stage:
Rhizome bearing shrubs and small trees capable of tolerating excessive light and water logged conditions appear on the edges of sedge/marsh meadow, e.g. Cormus, Cephalanthus, Populus, Alnus.
(G) Climax Stage:
New trees, shrubs and herbs appear which are in perfect harmony with the climate of the area.