These occur in high Himalaya (2800 m to 4000 m) from north-west frontier to north-east frontier. Here dense shrubby forests of silver fir, jug pine, birch, rhododendrons, plume and yew between altitude of 2850-3600 m which degum into Alpine scrubs (height 60-90 cm) on the soul slopes and dry xerophytic vegetation on the no slopes of the Himalayas below the snow line. Al pastures, with stunted conifers below and s fields above occur at an altitude of about 2250m 2750 m in the ranges like the Pir Panjal which used as grazing grounds by the Gujjar nomads practise transhumance. In western Himalayaas scented Alpine species with white flowers ‘Brahmakamal’ and the ‘Kuth’ are used in peery.
Grasslands equivalent to Steppe, Pampa Savannah are not found in India. These are gene found on wet soils, in forest pockets in the sal and on the hills. These are of three types: Hilly upland grasses occurring in the Himalayas (abbot 1000 m), on the Western Ghats, and in Kama; plateau. On Nilgiris these are found interspersed Shola forests. Lowland grasslands are found in plains of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar north-western parts of Assam. Riverine grasses found along the banks of the rivers whim provide grazing facilities to cattle. These vassal” together occupy 13.59 million hectares of the c try’s area.