Resuscitation is required when there is no breathing or inadequate circulation. The aims of resuscitation are:
1. To clear the airway. This is achieved by removing obstruction if any.
2. To restore breathing. This is achieved by artificial respiration.
3. To restore circulation. This can be attempted by cardiac
Clearing the airway
Obstruction of airway may occur due to 1) tongue falling back, 2) inhaled foreign body or 3) Vomit. The obstructed airway is opened as follows:
i) The jaw is lifted forward and the head is tilted on the neck. The foreign body is now removed by fingers.
ii) Back blow can also expel the foreign body.
Mouth to mouth artificial respiration
After making sure that the airway is clear, the patient is turned onto his back. After kneeling by his side, the nose is pinched with one hand and the chin bent forward with the other. After taking a long breath, the mouth is kept over that of the patient. His lungs are inflated and this is noted by expansion of his chest. Now, the mouth is taken away and it is carefully watched whether the patient exhales the breath. After doing this five or six times the patient starts breathing again.
Restoration of circulation
This is done by chest compression (closed chest cardiac massage, (CCM). Before doing this artificial respiration is done as above. One hand is placed over the lower third of the sternum and the other hand is placed over the first. By this position, the hands lie over the heart. With the arms straight, the hands are rocked backwards and forwards alternately. This releases and compresses the heart. Ultimately it forces blood to circulate.