6 important Elements in management Systems
According to William Pinnay and Donald Williams there are six elements in a system.
1. Identify Goals (Problems):
The first step in developing a system or in solving a problem is to identify the goals of the system or to specify the problem to be solved.
It is extremely important that this step be undertaken with the goals of the entire system in mind and that care be taken to assure that the real goals (not those which sound nice in press releases) or the real problems (and not merely visible symptoms of those problems) be specified. They should be stated in broad terms applicable to the system as a whole.
2. Define Objectives:
The second step is to translate the general goals or problems into specific objectives, defining each objective in precise terms that can be accomplished at a level below the total system level. These are well defined specific sub problems or components of the new system.
3. Generate Alternatives:
For each objective we generate a number of possible solutions. It is very important that we do not permit pre conceived solutions to stifle new approaches and that all feasible alternatives for the solution of the problems be considered.
Feasible alternatives are those that do not violate any of the constraints of the problem. These constraints are of two type’s internal constraints (those that we impose) and external constraints (those beyond our control that are imposed by the environment).
4. Eimluate Alternatives and Select Solution(s):
Next we screen the alternatives that have been proposed, evaluate each one, basing our evaluation on the goals and objectives previously defined; and select the best alternative(s) from those that are under consideration.
It is at this stage of the process that the tools of quantitative analysis find their most frequent use. The models from management science can be used to excellent advantage in measuring the effectiveness of various courses of action in meeting the goals and objectives. Proper application of the models can lead to selection of optimal courses of action.
5. Integrate the Solutions:
At this point it is essential that we examine the solutions to the sub problems and assure ourselves that they fit together into a unified solution to the overall problem or satisfy the original goal.
If the solvers of the sub problems have worked in isolation from each other, the ‘solution’ to one objective may interfere with, or prevent, or be otherwise incompatible with the ‘solution’ to another. This process of integrating the solutions to the pieces of the overall problem assures that new problems with interfaces between the parts do not render the total solution ineffective.
6. Implement the Solution:
Once the best alternatives for solving the problem or achieving goals have been identified, the solution must be implemented. It is at this stage that the behavioural skills of the manager problem solver must be at their best, for an optimal solution or system can, if improperly implemented, lead to worse rather than better results.
Recognition of and careful attention to the details of the ‘people problems’ are essential if the solution is to be successfully implemented.