Internal and External Sources of Recruitment

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Everything you need to know about the internal and external sources of recruitment. Recruitment is that part of hiring process which matches applicants for jobs with the necessary abilities and attitudes required for the task. The acquisition process cannot be put into operation until suitable candidates are attracted.

Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower is in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. – D. Yoder

Recruiting is that set of activities that an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help the organization achieve its objectives. -lvancevich and Glueck

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Some of the internal sources of recruitment are:-

1. Transfers 2. Promotion 3. Persons Known or Related to Present Employees.

Some of the external sources of recruitment are:-

1. Advertisement 2. Employment Exchanges 3. Schools, Colleges and Universities 4. Recommendation of Existing Employees 5. Factory Gates 6. Casual Callers 7. Central Application File

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8. Labour Unions 9. Labour Contractors 10. Former Employees 11. Personnel Consultants 12. Jobbers and Contractors 13. Field Trips 14. Unsolicited Applicants.

Sources of Recruitment: Internal and External Sources of Recruitment


Internal and External Sources of Recruitment 

Internal Sources:

Best employees can be found within the organization. When a vacancy arises in the organisation, it may be given to an employee who is already on the pay-roll. Internal sources include promotion, transfer and in certain cases demotion. When a higher post is given to a deserving employee, it motivates all other employees of the organisation to work hard. The employees can be informed of such a vacancy by internal advertisement.

The Internal Sources are given below:

1. Transfers:

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Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other similar jobs. These do not involve any change in rank, responsibility or prestige. The numbers of persons do not increase with transfers.

2. Promotions:

Promotions refer to shifting of persons to positions carrying better prestige, higher responsibilities and more pay. The higher positions falling vacant may be filled up from within the organisation. A promotion does not increase the number of persons in the organisation.

A person going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion will motivate employees to improve their performance so that they can also get promotion.

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3. Present Employees:

The present employees of a concern are informed about likely vacant positions. The employees recommend their relations or persons intimately known to them. Management is relieved of looking out prospective candidates.

The persons recommended by the employees may be generally suitable for the jobs because they know the requirements of various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility of those recommended by them and also ensure of their proper behaviour and performance.

External Sources:

All organisations have to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. More persons are needed when expansions are undertaken.

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The external sources are discussed below:

1. Advertisement:

It is a method of recruitment frequently used for skilled workers, clerical and higher staff. Advertisement can be given in newspapers and professional journals. These advertisements attract applicants in large number of highly variable quality.

Preparing good advertisement is a specialised task. If a company wants to conceal its name, a ‘blind advertisement’ may be given asking the applicants to apply to Post Bag or Box Number or to some advertising agency.

2. Employment Exchanges:

Employment exchanges in India are run by the Government. For unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, clerical posts etc., it is often used as a source of recruitment. In certain cases it has been made obligatory for the business concerns to notify their vacancies to the employment exchange. In the past, employers used to turn to these agencies only as a last resort. The job-seekers and job-givers are brought into contact by the employment exchanges.

3. Schools, Colleges and Universities:

Direct recruitment from educational institutions for certain jobs (i.e. placement) which require technical or professional qualification has become a common practice. A close liaison between the company and educational institutions helps in getting suitable candidates. The students are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level executives or managerial trainees may be recruited in this way.

4. Recommendation of Existing Employees:

The present employees know both the company and the candidate being recommended. Hence some companies encourage their existing employees to assist them in getting applications from persons who are known to them.

In certain cases rewards may also be given if candidates recommended by them are actually selected by the company. If recommendation leads to favouritism, it will impair the morale of employees

5. Factory Gates:

Certain workers present themselves at the factory gate every day for employment. This method of recruitment is very popular in India for unskilled or semi-skilled labour. The desirable candidates are selected by the first line supervisors. The major disadvantage of this system is that the person selected may not be suitable for the vacancy.

6. Casual Callers:

Those personnel who casually come to the company for employment may also be considered for the vacant post. It is most economical method of recruitment. In the advanced countries, this method of recruitment is very popular.

7. Central Application File:

A file of past applicants who were not selected earlier may be maintained. In order to keep the file alive, applications in the files must be checked at periodical intervals.

8. Labour Unions:

In certain occupations like construction, hotels, maritime industry etc., (i.e., industries where there is instability of employment) all recruits usually come from unions. It is advantageous from the management point of view because it saves expenses of recruitment. However, in other industries, unions may be asked to recommend candidates either as a goodwill gesture or as a courtesy towards the union.

9. Labour Contractors:

This method of recruitment is still prevalent in India for hiring unskilled and semi-skilled workers in brick kiln industry. The contractors keep themselves in touch with the labour and bring the workers at the places where they are required. They get commission for the number of persons supplied by them.

10. Former Employees:

In case employees have been laid off or have left the factory at their own, they may be taken back if they are interested in joining the concern (provided their record is good).

11. Other Sources:

Apart from these major sources of external recruitment, there are certain other sources which are exploited by companies from time to time. These include special lectures delivered by recruiter in different institutions, though apparently these lectures do not pertain to recruitment directly.

Then there are video films which are sent to various concerns and institutions so as to show the history and development of the company. These films present the story of company to various audiences, thus creating interest in them.

Various firms organise trade shows which attract many prospective employees. Many a time advertisements may be made for a special class of work force (say married ladies) who worked prior to their marriage.

These ladies can also prove to be very good source of work force. Similarly there is the labour market consisting of physically handicapped. Visits to other companies also help in finding new sources of recruitment.


Internal and External Sources of Recruitment – For an Organisation

(1) Internal Sources of Recruitment:

An organization has the following internal sources to fill vacant positions:

i. Transfers.

ii. Promotions.

iii. Persons known or related to present employees.

(2) External Sources of Recruitment:

The following are external sources of recruitment for an organization:

i. Advertisements.

ii. Personnel Consultants.

iii. Jobbers and Contractors.

iv. Employment Exchanges.

v. Educational Institutions.

vi. Field Trips.

vii. Unsolicited Applicants.

(1) Internal Sources of Recruitment:

i. Transfer from One Work-Place to Another:

“Transfer” of an employee of the organization from one work-place to another may be a source of recruitment to address shortage of personnel at the place to which the employee is transferred, though sometimes it may be done to remove him from the existing workplace where his continuance is deemed problematic for the organization.

Ordinarily, “transfer” does not result in change in the nature of duties or amount of salary and other benefits, though sometimes offer of increased benefits or prom­ise of out-of-turn promotion may lure the employee to agree to go to a workplace situated far from his home or in an inhospitable environment. It also does not alter the number and kind of employees working in the organization.

“Transfer” of an employee from one work-place to another may be—

(a) To avoid retrenchment or removal of surplus staff at one place and carry out recruitment at the place faced with staff shortage.

(b) To rotate employees among favourable and not-so-favourable work places;

(c) To correct faulty placement of workers at the time of selection; and

(d) To provide varied work experience and exposure to employees as a means of training and development.

ii. Promotions:

A “promotion” means elevation or placing an employee to a position of greater responsibility or authority, together with increase in wages and other benefits. While “promotion” brings about a change in the nature of duties and authority of the employee as also increase in wage/salary and other benefits, it does not mean any change in the number and kind of employees of the organi­zation.

Promotions may be based on seniority or merit of employees.

A comparative study of both the systems is as follows:

Seniority-Based Promotion:

Merits:

a. It is simple to implement as organization has record of the length of service of each employee.

b. It creates a feeling of discipline and respect for senior persons.

c. It keeps senior workers satisfied because they know their long years in service will earn them recognition and reward in due course.

d. It motivates workers to gain expertise to improve their future job prospects.

Demerits:

a. It only goes after seniority and ignores merit and competence.

b. It frustrates and discourages competent workers.

c. Competent employees, who are junior in terms of service in the organization, may start looking for jobs elsewhere.

Merit-Based Promotion:

Merits:

a. It recognizes and rewards merit and competence.

b. It motivates employees to keep improving their skill sets.

c. It enables the organization to retain competent em­ployees who might otherwise leave in search of better prospects elsewhere.

d. It leads to increase in productivity and efficiency levels of employees.

Demerits:

a. It is not easy to devise a system to objectively determine competence-levels.

b. It frustrates senior employees because they see their juniors moving up the organization ladder and begin bossing over them.

c. There is air of uncertainty among workers who do not know who might be picked up for promotion next.

iii. Persons Known or Related to Present Employees:

Persons working in the organization may sometimes turn out to be a valuable source of recruitment. In the event of any vacancy, the organization may request them to recommend their relative or friend to fill the vacant position. This creates among them a sense of belonging to the organization.

If a person recommended by an existing employee is appointed to fill in the vacancy, the organization will reap dual benefit- First, it will get an employee who, because of his relationship with the existing employee, will work to his best capacity and never give cause for any complaint. Secondly, the existing employee whose recommendation has been accepted by the organization will work with redoubled zeal and loyalty.

The only demerit of this method of recruitment is that it might promote unfair practices like favou­ritism and nepotism. Workers may be recruited not because of their suitability for jobs, but because they have right contacts in the organization who may sponsor and lobby their names and tilt the scales in their favour.

Merits of Internal Sources of Recruitment:

i. Boost to Employee Satisfaction and Morale:

Recruitment from internal sources enhances employee morale and commitment to the organization. They know that if they keep on adding to their skill sets, they would in course of time get recognition by way of promotion to positions of higher responsibility and rewards.

An employee who initially accepted to work at a workplace that is far from his favoured destination can always look forward to being transferred to that place. And, of course, an existing employee whose recommendation has led to appointment of his relative or friend in the organization will always remain grateful and sincere.

ii. Better Selection:

Performance test is the best to determine a person’s suitability for a job. Before promoting or transfer­ring an existing employee to a senior position at the same or different work station, the organization will have up-to-date information about his capacity, capability, skills, attitude, and behaviour towards co-workers. This would greatly help in selection of the right person for the right job at the right place.

iii. Significant Savings in Selection Process:

Filling of a vacancy from internal source is quite economical. It does not require much expenditure in terms of money, time and energy on calling persons for written, oral or aptitude tests. Further, as the person selected is already an experienced hand, the organization would be spared the need to train him in the skills of the job.

iv. No Need to Give Induction or Orientation Training:

A person selected for a job from within the organization knows the organizational relationships. As such, he does not have to be briefed about what authority and responsibilities are attached to different positions in the organizational set up.

Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment:

i. Leads to Ill Effects of Inbreeding:

Selection from within means selectors will not have access to candidates from outside the organiza­tion. If only an internal candidate is to be selected to fill a vacancy, he will only work as per the perfor­mance and behavioural standards set by the organization. He will be unable to introduce new ideas, work culture and performance standards because he has not had an opportunity to learn them. In any case, the organization will not fulfil its responsibility to society by denying outsiders an opportunity to work for it.

ii. Lack of Originality:

Where vacancies, particularly at higher levels, are filled internally, the organization will only follow the beaten track. Like a frog in the well, it will not have exposure to new ideas, work cultures and hence will not develop capacity to adjust and adapt to a fast changing external environment in the global set up. Internal candidates, by virtue of their service in the organization for a long time, get attuned to its work-culture and as such lose the ability to think out new ideas and work methods.

Characteristics of a Good Promotion Policy:

1. The policy about promotions from within the organization should be given wide publicity and implemented in letter and spirit.

2. Employees should be rotated from job to job, so that they gain expertise and experience to qualify for promotion.

3. On the basis of a scientific job analysis, accurate job descriptions should be prepared for each job so that employees know what qualifications and expertise would enable them to qualify for promotion.

4. The organization should help employees to add to their knowledge and skills through on-the job training, vocational courses, night classes, etc.

5. Cases for promotion should be recommended by line managers and decided by their superiors in line management.

6. Employees should have the right to represent against any decision on promotion.

7. Promotion should be, and be seen by employees as based on objective considerations, free from favouritism and bias. This would earn acceptance from persons who were in the line for promotion but did not get it.

Characteristics of a Good Transfer Policy:

1. Employees transferred from one workplace to another should only be given jobs for which they possess required expertise and experience.

2. Only managers vested with relevant authority should effect transfers.

3. There should be accurate job description of jobs to which transfers are under consideration. Requirements as regards skill sets required for a job should be clearly specified as also the time-limit for the transferred employee to acquire those skills.

4. Departments and work units to be affected by transfer should be decided in advance.

5. Effect of a transfer on the seniority and promotional prospects of the employee being considered for transfer should be clearly spelt out.

6. There should be clear policy about transfer to a particular job, or to a particular shift of work, such that workers aspiring for it can judge their eligibility for the same.

7. If a transfer is to result in any change in remuneration, this should be made clear to the employee concerned.

(2) External Sources of Recruitment:

i. Advertisements in Appropriate Media:

The fact about existence of any vacancy for a job in the organization should be given due publicity for job-aspirants to know their suitability for the same. Decision about the content of advertisement and the media chosen to splash it—print, electronic or audio-visual—will be decided by the Personnel Department.

While details of vacancies for blue-collar jobs (requiring little or no education and skills) may be listed on notice boards outside the factory gate, or advertised in the local press, those for managerial and administrative personnel are advertised in national (even sometimes global) news-papers, period­icals, or electronic media to attract competent persons across the world.

It would be impossible to find a Sundar Pichai heading Google(dot)com or an Indira Nooyi of the Pepsico or an Anshu Jain of the Deutsche Bank if the recruiter was confined to the local media.

Sometimes, an organization may not disclose its name in the advertisement, and instead ask the candidates to reply to a post box number, or to a firm of job consultants. It may do so to avoid revealing its identity, or because it is set to fill, or has already filled the post, internally.

However, while advertisements without the name of the advertiser may be all right in case of a vacancy among higher level positions, those to fill lower level positions should generally carry the name of the organization.

ii. Management/Personnel Consultants:

A consulting firm acts as an intermediary between job applicant and the organization. It is a special­ized agency which, on receiving requisition from a client company, advertises the job descriptions in leading national newspapers and periodicals without disclosing the name of the client-company. The applications received from candidates are duplicated and passed on to the client-company.

Sometimes, these firms may even screen, interview and select the candidates, and for a specified period also stand surety for them in case their performance does not satisfy the expectations of the client-company.

iii. Jobbers and Contractors:

It is common for a manufacturing organization to avail the services of jobbers and contractors for recruitment of unskilled workers for filling casual vacancies at the factory gate. At short notice and for a small fee, jobbers and contractors arrange to supply the required number of workers to any manu­facturing organization.

Jobbers and contractors have close links with towns and villages which are a rich source of unskilled workers. They also, sometimes at their own expense, bring the workers to the place of work and also pay them advance money.

iv. Employment Exchanges:

Public employment exchanges set up by government serve as an important source of recruitment of personnel. They register the names of job-seekers and pass them on to employers who intimate their vacancies to them.

But generally, only unskilled and inexperienced persons register their names with the employ­ment exchanges. Those with specialized skills and experience are not always keen to register them­selves either because they consider it below their dignity, or because they believe registration with an employment exchange may not find them jobs they deserve.

Employers too oftentimes avoid approach­ing an employment exchange believing that it only has record of semi-educated, unskilled workers and cannot fulfil their requirement of persons with specialized skills and experience.

v. Educational Institutions:

Employers can also recruit students about to pass out of universities, colleges and professional institutes. Many educational institutions run their own Employment Bureaus to assist employers in their recruitment activity.

With opening up of education to the private sector, it is common to find management and engi­neering colleges making boastful claims about the number and names of domestic and foreign companies visiting them for recruitment and citing the number of their students selected by them on astronomical salaries.

However, such institutions can only provide young and inexperienced workers, though many recruiters have found ways to get around this by selecting students as internees on payment of high stipends and then after proper training on the job, place them in regular positions.

vi. Field Trips:

An organization may send out teams of experts to different places where the kinds of personnel needed by it are likely to be found. But in this case it is necessary to give wide publicity about the venue, date, and time when the team would interview candidates.

vii. Unsolicited Applicants:

These are persons who either assemble at the factory gate to serve as casual workers, or reach the employer by letter, telephone, e-mail or in person, with request for appointment against a real or pre­sumed vacancy.

Though very common, applications or calls by unwanted applicants cannot be a dependable source of supply of personnel. Applications received from such persons will obviously have a short shelf-life. Qualified and experienced among such applicants may be picked up by other employers where too they must have applied.

However, in conditions of high unemployment, this source can supply the required personnel. In any case, it is always advisable to maintain a regular record of such applications for use in times of need.

Merits of External Sources of Recruitment:

a. Wide Choice:

Selection from external sources will help an organization to select personnel of its choice from among a number of applicants. It can carefully study and test the knowledge and experience of all applicants and then decide on the best among them for selection.

b. Fresh Ideas and Outlook:

In a world witnessing fierce competition with each business organization trying every means to grab the dominant position, an organization needs to develop new products and services through modern technology. To do so, it needs fresh and creative workers who can only be found among persons selected from external sources of recruitment.

Unlike those selected internally, the new generation personnel from external sources will begin on a clean slate and carry no baggage of old-world ideas and practices. No wonder even in tradition and culture bound countries; fami­ly-run businesses are steadily passing into the hands of professionals.

Demerits of External Sources of Recruitment:

a. Heart-Burning among Existing Employees:

Personnel chosen from external sources become a source of heart-burning and demoralization for existing employees. This is all the more so if an outsider is appointed to an important position which, but for his appointment, would have gone to an existing employee. For this reason, old hands do not co-operate with the new man in efficient discharge of his duties.

b. Expensive:

Recruitment of staff from external sources may sometimes be quite expensive. An advertisement in the media is itself a costly affair. Holding of written tests and personal interviews will also involve expen­diture. Candidates coming from outside may have to be paid air, railway or bus fare.

c. Orientation:

The cost of initiating a new person into the work-patterns and culture of the organization will also be costly. He may learn after a considerable expense and wastage in terms of time and material.

d. Danger of Maladjustment:

If a person chosen from an external source fails to adjust himself to the work culture of the organiza­tion, or proves to be headstrong and unaccommodating, he may have to be removed which means a fresh round of recruitment and selection and expenditure of time and money.

Appropriateness of Each Source:

Many Sources of Recruitment:

There are many sources for an organization to pick up its manpower. Internally, it may rely on pro­motions and transfers. Externally, it may recruit personnel through advertisements on the print and electronic media, private and public employment agencies, field trips, educational institutions, and candidates who visit or drop in to apply for a job.

An organization cannot rely on any one source to meet its personnel requirements. It has to have a judicious combination of the different sources after carefully ascertaining their plus and minus points. For example, it has to ascertain the cost of depending on each source, suitability of personnel who may be recruited through it, and the effect its choice of a source will have on the present employees.

Selection of Suitable Source(s):

Appropriateness of any source of recruitment may be tested on the following counts:

(1) Time gap between receipt of applications and placement of candidates.

(2) Ratio between the number of applicants and those finally selected, i.e., number of persons hired per 100 applicants.

(3) Costs involved.

(4) Suitability of the source for providing the right number and kinds of personnel.

(5) Effects of the choice of the source on the attitudes and morale of present employees.

Difficulties of Recruitment:

(1) Public Image of Organization:

The public image of an organization will greatly determine whether or not it can recruit people of its choice. There are organizations with which job seekers would love to be associated even at the cost of low salaries, less than ideal working conditions and other inconvenient factors. Take Tatas, Birlas, or the J.K. Group of Industries, for example. If a candidate is offered a job in any of these organizations he would not think twice before making up his mind to accept it.

But there are also few organizations which, because of their undesirable attitude to workers, poor working conditions, or controversies surrounding them, may keep away people from joining it.

(2) Nature of Job:

The nature of the job may also be a factor in influencing the choice of a candidate. If the job carries an attractive salary, good working conditions and bright prospects for promotion, it would tempt him. On the other hand, if the salary offered is low, or if the job is hazardous, deadlines-driven or does not provide opportunities for career growth, competent persons will be reluctant to accept it.

(3) Policy of the Organization:

If an organization is known to fill all vacancies at higher levels through promotion from within, it will not attract many competent persons. On the other hand, if it prefers outsiders to fill all vacancies, it will gain attraction in the eyes of competent persons.

(4) Union Demands:

In some cases, agreements with the workers’ unions may also come in the way of selection of good candidates. For example, if the management has agreed to have some categories of vacancies filled through unions, it may not be able to select better candidates from elsewhere.

(5) Government Polices:

Sometimes, government policies may also prevent recruitment of competent persons. For example, if there is a law that for certain jobs in the organization, only candidates belonging to certain sections of society- based on class or tribe membership—or sent through official employment exchanges will be considered, then organizations in the private sector will not be able to tap any other avenues to fill these posts.

The Government may also notify that a certain number of posts have to be reserved for certain sections of soci­ety. Similarly, it may also prohibit discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, sex, etc.


Internal and External Sources of Recruitment – Advantages and Disadvantages

Broadly, the sources of recruitment are internal and external. With the explosion of information technology, many organizations adopt e-recruitment. Recruitment from each of these sources has its advantages and disadvantages. 

Internal Recruitment:

Recruiting individuals need to fill particular posts within a business and it can be done internally by declaring the vacancy in the notice board. Internal recruitment happens when the business organization desires to fill the vacancy from within its existing workforce. Internal recruitment refers to the internal mobility of employees.

Internal Mobility of Employees:

Internal mobility of employees is a part of internal recruitment. Internal mobility of personnel at higher position in organizational hierarchy is referred to as succession planning. Providing adequate internal career development opportunities is a key factor in employee motivation and job satisfaction. Promoting internal recruitment is also critical for any organization; helps retaining top talent and ensures future business success.

Internal mobility provides an opportunity for personal development and thus employees are encouraged to take personal responsibility for their own professional growth and competence development. Internal mobility has the components like time in one position, open communication, transfer period, internal transfer within a country, and internal transfer between countries.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment:

The advantages of internal recruitment are manifold:

1. A firm can save substantial recruitment cost during the recruitment process. Individuals with knowledge of the firm will need shorter periods of training and time for ‘fitting in’. The process of induction is not required at all. They only need to be given a brief about the higher position.

2. Disruption in the organization will be minimal as the promoted or the transferred individual is used to work with others in the organization.

3. Internal promotion acts as an incentive to all staff to work harder within the organization.

4. From the point of view of the firm, the strengths and weaknesses of an employee are assessed. There is always a risk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success ‘on paper’ without actually having a good track record.

The disadvantages of internal recruitment are as follows:

1. The firm will have to replace the person who has been promoted. In other words, the promotion can create a ripple effect in the organization.

2. An insider may be less likely to make the essential criticisms required to get the firm working more effectively.

3. Sometimes, promoting an individual may upset someone else. This happens when one competent person expects promotion but does not get that due to shortage of vacancies.

External Recruitment:

External recruitment makes it possible to draw upon a wider range of talents from the markets. This source provides the opportunity to bring in new experience and ideas in to the business. The disadvan­tages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective or an underperformer in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation.

This happens due to the occurrence of ‘select error’ during the selection process. External recruitment is used when the business looks to fill the vacancy by a suitable applicant outside the business.

Advantages and Disadvantages of External Recruitment:

Similar to internal recruitment, external recruitment has its advantages and disadvantages as well.

Advantages and Disadvantages of External Recruitment:

Advantages:

1. External people may propose new ideas for the organization.

2. It provides a larger pool of workforce from which best candidates can be identified.

Disadvantages:

1. The process is longer, organization.

2. It is more expensive due to the need for advertisements and interviews.

Electronic Recruitment (E-Recruitment):

With the intensification and popularization of information technology, elec­tronic recruitment (e-recruitment) has become a common and popular practice of recruitment. The extensive growth of information technology has opened up a panorama for organizations trying to acquire talents through an entirely dif­ferent gateway.

There are many ways to use the Internet, and organizations are largely inclining and refining their use of this medium. In fact, e-recruitment is an evolving face of recruitment, and may possibly replace the advertising in newspapers.

According to a study by NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies), ‘Jobs are among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail’. There are more than 18 million resumes floating online across the world. This penetration of e-recruitment is seen to be increasing in India at a very rapid rate.

The two popular kinds of e-recruitment used by companies in India are:

i. Job portals – Companies post their requirements along with job description and job specifications on these portals. These portals help in shortlisting suitable resumes too.

ii. Creating a complete online recruitment section – Some companies have their own websites specifically for recruitments. Job seekers can submit their resumes directly into this database, from where the organization chooses a suitable candidate.

Resume scanners, widely popular among the recruitment agencies, are a big help to them as they aid in screening and filtering the resumes.

Monster (www(dot)monster(dot)com), Hotjobs (www(dot)hotjobs(dot)com), and CareerBuilder (www(dot)careerbuilder(dot)co(dot)in) are some well-known job sites which attract a vast array of applicants, who submit standard­ized resumes that can be electronically searched using key terms. Organization can search for suitable candidates and job seekers can search organizations in the same way.

Techniques of Online Recruitment:

A particular method or modus operandi needs to be followed for online recruitment. Otherwise, the process may not achieve the desired purpose.

1. Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings

2. Furnishing evolution, growth vectors, achievements, and other aspects to attract candidates with the right competencies and qualifications at the entry stage

3. Incorporating e-recruitment into the overall recruitment strategy of the organization

4. Enabling applicant tracking through a well-defined and structured system, and integrating the system having a back-end support

5. Developing a comprehensive website. Along with the back-office support, the website should receive and process job applications. The website may receive the applications either direct or through online advertising.

Sources of Human Resource and Means of Attracting Them:

We have studied that internal, external, and e-recruitment are sources used by organizations for recruit­ment, depending on whichever they find appropriate for the situation in which they want to add manpower. After decided the same, attention should be given to attract them. In fact, at present, there are abundant sources of human resources; though getting the right persons from them continues to be a problem. Hence, multiple sources must be exploited.

Most Common Sources of Human Resource:

The source of HR or manpower depends on the level at which employees are being recruited. For lower levels, internal recruitment is conducted. However, for recruitment at the upper level, companies gen­erally take on external recruitment when they search for talents from the open market with requisite qualifications, experiences, and proven track records in their present companies.

For recruitment, the most common sources of HR are notice boards, employment exchanges, state and union public service commissions, educational institutions, recommendations of present employees, labour unions, etc.

i. Notice Board:

A company’s notice board is used for putting up notices showing the appraisals of the employees so that they can inform family members, friends, and other known persons about the position that has fallen vacant. The applications are received; scrutinized, short-listed, and eligible candidates are called for selection tests. In this case, the recruitment is the minimal.

ii. Internal Job Market:

The internal job market (IJM) is another tool to search for potential candidates within the same family for various lucrative positions. It is an electronic tool extensively used by multinational companies. The IJM facilitates worldwide search for talent. The principal purpose of IJM is to help the internal mobility system and the process of career development of the employees.

iii. Employee Referral:

Some companies ask their present employees to recommend prospective candidates. This mode is widely practised in information technology companies such as Yahoo, Google, and Microsoft. The recommended candidate undergoes a screening process. On selection, the recommended employee gets some honorarium as he/she saves the recruitment cost for the company.

iv. Employment Exchange:

As per public policy, employment exchanges established in various cities act as an important source of recruitment.

v. Service Commissions:

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), state PSC, and College Service Commission (CSC), serve as a point of recruitment for professional and managerial positions.

vi. Placement Agencies:

Some recruitment agencies and associations establish and maintain a database of job seekers. When a company approaches such an agency, it refers to the database, fetches the candidates with requisite backgrounds, and provides the list to the company who carries out the selection process.

In some cases, companies desire the agency to recruit on their behalf and agencies do that. This is also a good source for recruitment as the process is smooth and the lead time for recruitment is minimum.

vii. Educational Institutions:

The placement cell of B-schools and engineering colleges/institutions approach organizations and invite them for campus recruitment. Some companies make special efforts to establish and maintain constructive relationships with management and engineering colleges, universities, and institutes to get the suitable, qualified HR.

viii. Labour Unions:

Unions look after the welfare of the employees. As a part of the welfare measure, many organizations provide employment to the next-of-kin of the deceased person on compassionate grounds in consultation with the labour unions after due verification about the movable and immovable assets.

ix. Nepotism:

In family-owned organizations, there may not be definite recruitment policy. Rather they recruit family members having the capacity to perform the tasks.

x. Leasing:

To meet short-term requirements, persons can be taken on ‘lien’ or ‘lease’ basis for a period of one, two, or three years. The organization gets experienced persons and is not required to bear any obligation. People working in the government sector are seen to frequently proceed to some government organization on lien. The main advantage is that if the person finds the new organization not very promising for some considerations, he/she may return back to the parent organization within the lien period.

Attracting Human Resource:

Getting more applicants makes it possible to get good candidates. Through a multi-stage selection pro­cess, candidates get screened, and only a few extremely good and suitable candidates reach the interview level. Finally, the board selects the best of the lot, and prepares the panel of selected candidates.

To obtain a large number of applicants, an organization must initiate a proactive approach. Like any other advertisements, these advertisements compete with one another for attention. You must remember that the readers of the advertisement may become your prospective employees. Marketing professionals follow a simple and effective method called AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) for creating superior advertisements.

AIDA emphasizes the following:

A – Attract the reader’s attention.

I – Generate interest in the vacancy.

D – Create desire for the job.

A – Stimulate the reader to take action.

In order to attract attention, an organization should briefly mention in the advertisement about the evolution of the company, the group of dependable suppliers, its potential customers, share value and belief, image, technology in use, awards it bagged, strategy of development, etc. In order to attract employees, it should communicate the essential (appealing and relevant) points quickly and clearly.

Interest in the vacancy may be generated by mentioning the career growth and progression, career anchors, succession planning, etc. You must also communicate a very clear and a realistic picture of the organization to ensure that the organizations values match those of potential candidates. Moreover, this would reduce the probability of attrition.

The desire of prospective candidates or talents may be created by mentioning a few challenging projects which they would be required to manage, mention chances of visiting abroad, scope of attending management development pro­grammes in reputed institutes, opportunity for self-development, and so forth.

Government departments generally advertise by specifying the job require­ments, and ask candidates to collect the form by sending a postal order, pay order, or any other mode of remittance. Many prospective candidates feel lethargic going through this process. On the contrary, the prescribed application format may be uploaded to the website, thus facilitating filling the form.

Further, the provision for remitting the requisite amount online may also be provided using debit card or credit card. Provid­ing the facility of uploading the photograph would further help the selection process.

One should have a general idea as to where potential candidates will be coming from, so that one can choose appropriate strategies to target them and select the appropriate media of advertising to reach them.


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