American Civil War (1776-83): The American Civil War was fought ty the settlers of America against the Britishers. The war started in 1776 and a declaration of independence was announced from Philadelphia, under the leadership of George Washington. The struggle ended in victory for the thirteen States which united to throw off the British rule.
The French Revolution (1789) : The autocratic monarch, nobles, clergy and privileged classes brought the socio-economic order to a point of collapse. The medieval feudal society oppressing the serf-peasants led the country to financial bankruptcy. It was the period of Voltaire and Montesque.
This class of intellectuals, was inspired to change the face of the social life of France. They gave a call for ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.’ The King and Queen were executed. The product of the French Revolution was Napolean Bonaparte who emerged as a great warrior bringing glory to France, and breaking down feudalism in Europe.
The Russian Revolution (1917): The Czars of Russia were the most autocratic rulers of Europe. The masses of people were very poor. Their resentment against it had found expressions in many revolts and usurgers in the past. But during the First World War the army of the Czars was badly mauled by the Germans.
In the month of February 1917, the whole nation went on strike and the State machinery was paralysed. The army was asked to shoot. They refused to do so. The Soviet councils of workers, peasants and soldiers were formed. The King had to abdicate and the Soviet Councils captured power. Lenin emerged out as the great champion of the toiling millions. Under his leadership, a Communist regime was established.
The Crusades (1095-1217): The First Crusade was taken by Godlery of Bouilon. Those were military expeditions of religious Christian nations for the safety of pilgrims who visited the Holy places of Christians and also to see that those places were in the hands of Christians.
Reformation Movement (Germany): It started in Germany in the 16th century and spread over all the European countries. Martin Luther was the leader of the Protestantism.
The Commercial Revolution: The discoveries of America and sea- route to India via Cape of Good Hope were tremendous events in the history of human civilization. The peoples of Europe vied with one another for colonization the new discovered lands. The ship loads of commodities from all lands began to cross oceans for exchange of goods.
The mercantile community became very important. They began to influence the political life. Those days of the supremacy of mercantile community were called the days of ‘Commercial Revolution’.
The Industrial Revolution (1760-1820) : The invention of power- driven machines such as Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Power Loom, Cotton Jin and Steam Engine etc. was a land mark in the economic prosperity of the world. This revolution helped Britain and France to build up political supremacy in the world affairs.
The Great Charter 1215 (The Magna Carta): King John II, of England, was the worst of the English Kings. The barons and the clergy were annoyed with him. They forced the King to sign the charter in 1215. It was the foundation stone of the rights and liberties of the English people.
The Renaissance: During the rule of the Roman Empire, manuscripts containing the wisdom of the ancient Greeks were all heaped in
Constantinople. The scholars of Europe studied them there. But in the year 1453, the Turks occupied Constantinople. All the scholars fled away and settled in the cities of Italy with ancient manuscripts. With the help of the printing press these books were reprinted to bring back to life the Greeks discoveries in Astronomy, Geography and other Sciences, which were largely forgotten by the Western Europe. A Greek copy of the New Testament was found. That book revolutionised the religious reforms of Europe. The Renaissance has been aptly called the Revival of Learning that swept all over Europe.
The Glorious Revolution (1688) : This revolution brought permanent changes in England. This ended in 1688 the despotic rule of the Stuart Kings. This was a bloodless revolution and so it is called Glorious Revolution.
Human Rights Charter: In 1948, the General Assembly of United Nations accepted the Declaration of Human Rights which recognizes the inherent dignity, equality and inalienable rights of all members of human family.