Five independent kingdoms rose on the ruins of Bahmani kingdom, namely Berar, Bidar, Ahmadrr Golconda and Bijapur

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Five independent kingdoms rose on the ruins of Bahmani kingdom, namely Berar, Bidar, Ahmadrr Golconda and Bijapur.

Berar

It was the first province to break loose from Bahmani kingdom when in 1484. Fathulla, governor of Gowilgarh, revolted against Mahm Bahmani. The dynasty he founded was called Imad Shahi dynasty because he bore the title Imad-ul-Mulk. His capital was at Elichpur. The dynasty lasted for about ninety years until 1574 when it was annexed by Ahmadnagar.

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Bidar

Kasim Barid, a Turkish officer of Mahmud S Bahmani, made himself virtually independent about the year 1492 though he did not assume the royal rank. His son Amir Barid openly assumed independent position in 1525. The third Sultan Ali Barid assumed the title of Shah. In about 1609, Bi was absorbed by Bijapur.

Ahmadnagar

Founded by Malik Ahmad, son of Nizam-ul-Mulk, in the year 1490, the dynasty is known as the Nizam Shahi dynasty (as he assumed the title, Ahnad Nizam Shah). He also founded the city of Ahmadnagar and made it his capital.

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In 1565 the kingdom joined the confederacy against Vijayanagar. After conquering Berar in 1574, Ahmadnagar was involved in a long drawn out warfare with the Mughals. In 1576 Akbar decided to invade Ahmadnagar but the fort was defended by Chand Bibi who purchased peace by surrendering Berar.

She was later murdered by her own officers and the Mughals annexed Ahmadnagar (1600). The kingdom did not cease to exist but was governed by an Abyssinian minister named Malik Amber. He successfully defied the Mughals and freed Ahmadnagar (1610) Ahmadnagar was finally annexed by Shah Jahan in 1637.

Golconda

Founded by Quli Qutb Shah in 1512, the dynasty is known as the Qutb Shahi dynasty. The kingdom of Golconda led a more or less isolated existence, taking only a minor part in the tangled politics of the Deccan.

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The first sultan of this dynasty, Qutb Shah transferred his capital from Warangal to Golconda. He was murdered in 1543. Ibrahim Adil Shah, who ascended the throne, was a tolerant monarch. He treated the Hindus well. His successor was Sultan Muhammad Quli. After his death in 1611. Golconda was involved in warfare with the Mughal empire. In 1687 the kingdom was annexed to the Mughal empire by Aurangzeb.

Bijapur

Out of the five kingdoms of the Deccan Sultanate, Bijapur was the most important. It was founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, who waged wars against Vijayanagar and his neighbours but his great achievement was the recovery of Goa from the Portuguese comĀ­mander, Albuquerque, though the Portuguese retook it in 1510. He was succeeded by his minor son, Ismail Shah, who recovered Raichur Doab from Vijayanagar.

During the reign of Ibrahim Adil Shah, the kingdoms of Golconda, Bidar and Ahmadnagar attacked Bijapur but it was well defended by its able minister Asad Khan. Ibrahim died in 1557 and was succeeded by his son, Ali Adil Shah. Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1579- 1626) was perhaps the greatest of the Adil Shahi kings. He was a good administrator and introduced a very efficient system of revenue settlement. He was tolerant of all creeds and faiths. He kept friendly relations with the Portuguese and allowed them to preach Christianity in his dominions.

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