Injuries of the knee in athletes vary somewhat from injuries in other patients. This is due to several factors. The degree of conditioning and quality of the tissues in athletic knees are higher.
The types of injury are more sports specific (for example, anterior circulate ligament tear).
1. Ligament Sprains:
The term “sprain” refers to a partial or complete tear of ligament substance. Ligaments are made up of millions of fibers of “collagen” somewhat like a women rope. When a ligament is sprained, a portion of the fibres is dredged or torn. In low-grade sprains, only a few fibers are torn, and patients have pain without much in the way of instability from the ligament being too loose.
2. Muscle Strains:
Muscle strains are similar to ligament sprains, except that they occur in muscle tissue rather than in the collage nous ligament substance. This is what occurs, for example, when on athlete has a “hamstring pull”. The same rating of muscle strains is used from low-grade rating of muscle strains is used from low-grade strains in which a few of the muscle fibers are torn, and the athlete has pain without much weakness, to high-grade complete tears of the muscle when severe pain and weakness are present.
3. Cartilage Tears:
There are two forms of cartilage in the knee. One is a surface, or “particular” cartilage, which is the white, glistening cartilage on the surface of the bone. This is very smooth and designed to glide without any friction. The second type of cartilage is the “meniscus” cartilage. This is more of a “bumper cushion” cartilage, which sits between the thigh and shin bones, providing a shock-absorbing effect during athletics.
4. Anterior Curiae Ligament Injuries:
The anterior circulate ligament is the main central stabilizer of the knee during sports. It prevents the shin bone from sliding forward on the femur bone, especially when the knee is out straight. This ligament when the knee is out straight. This ligament can be torn during twisted or other types of loading maneuvers of the knee. Usually the athlete feels a pop, and has significant pain associated with moderate to severe swelling of the knee.
5. Posterior Circulate Ligament Injuries:
The posterior circulate ligament is another central stabilizer of the knee and prevents the shin bone from sliding backwards on the femur bone during sports. It is more important when the knee is flexed. Injury to this ligament is much rarer than to the anterior circulate ligament.
6. Collateral Ligament Injuries:
The medial (inner side of the knee) and lateral (outer side of the knee) collateral ligaments are additional ligament structures that prevent the knee from going into a knock-kneed or bowlegged posture.
7. Kneecap Dislocations:
Kneecap Dislocation is a relatively common injury in the young athlete. The rate of dislocation in higher in women than men. First time dislocations are usually treated with initial immobilization followed by rehabilitation therapy.
8. Chondromalacia Patella:
This is term used to describe wear and tear of the smooth particular cartilage on the under surface of the kneecap. This occurs due to overuse or kneecap dislocations in athletes.
Tendinitis is term that refers to inflammation (“it is”) of muscle tendons about the knee. This can occur in the kneecap tendons, hamstring tendons, in the back of the knee or elsewhere.
10. Osgood-Schlactter’s Syndrome:
This is a condition of young athletes, usually male, in which the insertion of the kneecaps tendon into the shin bone becomes very sore and inflamed.