Management simply means to control or to administer. Office management means the method of controlling an office so as to enable to achieve a given aim. In our modern society, all kinds, or business are carried on by a group of people, who have enough knowledge in their respective fields.
But group of people, who are working for a common object, must be guided and controlled by a leader or an authority. This is the function of the management. Management is a technique of leadership or control of an office in order to attain the aimed result through the efforts of other people in grouped activities.
This is possible when the office is properly organized and managed. Office function is carried on by a group of people for a common result, by giving services to the organization. The management has to organize the office in such a way as to attain the objectives.
It is the function of the management to organize, guide and control the whole activities of the office personnel for a common aim. That is why in the present era, the personnel management has become a specialized subject.
Before entering into the next topic, it would be essential to understand the meaning of administration, management and organization. Sheldon summaries them in the following words:
“Administration is the function in industry concerned in the determination of the corporate policy, the co-ordination of finance, production and distribution, the settlement of the compass of the organization and the ultimate control of the executive.”
“Management proper is the function in industry concerned in the execution of policy, within the limits set up by the administration and the employment of the organization for the particular objects set before it.”
“Organization is the process of so combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with the faculties necessary for its execution that the duties, so framed, provide the best channels for the efficient, systematic, and positive and co-ordinate application of the available effort.
“Organization is the formation of an effective ‘machine; management of an effective executive; administration of an effective direction. Administration determines the organization; management uses it. Administration defines the goal; management strives towards it. Organization is the machine of management in its achievement of the ends determined by administration.”
Thus “Determination of policy and co-ordination (Administration), the execution of policy and employment of organization (Management) and the combination of the work of individuals or groups with the faculties necessary for its execution (Organisation)”.
According to Schulze, “Administration is the force which lays down the object for which an organization and its management are to strive and the broad policies under which they are to operate. Management is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of a predetermined object. Organization is the combination of the necessary human beings, materials, tools, equipment, working space and appurtenances, brought together in systematic and effective correlation, to accomplish some desired object.”
According to Miliward, “Administration is primarily the process and the agency used to establish the object or purpose which an undertaking and its staff are to achieve; secondarily, administration has to plan and to stabilize the broad lines or principles which will govern action.
These broad lines are in their turn usually called policies. Management is the process and the agency through which the execution of policy is planned and supervised.
Organization is the process of dividing work into convenient tasks or duties, of grouping such duties in the form of posts, of delegating authority to each post and of appointing qualified staff to be responsible that the work is carried out as planned.”
It is known through economics that the factors of production are divided into four- Land, Labour. Capital and Entrepreneur. The last is important under the present study. The entrepreneur is the man, who brings together the other factors in a business. The other factors can be called as organization.
For example consider a human body. Human body can be compared as an organization. It has various organs-ears to hear, eyes to see, hands to work, legs to walk, etc. Each organ has a specific work. Each of the organs of course works in co-ordination with the other organs.
All the activities of the different organs combined, can be considered as an organization. Finally, there is a top administrator the brain. Similarly in business, production department, sales department, personnel department etc., have to do the proper functions as directed by the management.
The organization may refer to the function of organization or to the plans carried out through persons. Organization is concerned with and exists when an employee is selected, assigned jobs within his ability to work through a clear understanding. He must understand what he should do, how he should do and when he should do.
Office administration denotes the function of giving birth to major policies upon which the enterprise is to be functioned. In a joint-stock company, the Board of Directors makes the major policies and in a partnership firm, the partners lay down the policies. In all kinds of business the function of administration is the same. Making the policies is the function of the administration.
The word management has been defined variously by different authors and some of these definitions are given below:
1. “Management is an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out of the broad policies laid down by the administration. It is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objectives.”
2. “Management is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of pre-determined goals.”
3. “Management proper is the function in industry concerned in the execution of policy, within the limits set up by the administration and the employment of the organization for the particular objects set before it.”
4. “The job of management is to make co-operative Endeavour to function properly. A manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources in order to reach an objective.”
5. “Management consists of getting things done through others. Manager is one who accomplishes the objectives by directing the efforts of others.”
6. “Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum, prosperity with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.”
7. “Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of attaining predetermined goals.”
8. “Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership.”