Ecosystem which prevails on land is called terrestrial ecosystem. Man is closely related to it as it provides us with our basic needs like food, shelter, clothing, etc. The surface of the land has a cover of diverse vegetation which depends on climatic conditions. Plants occur in distinct groups of communities in areas having similar climatic conditions are called biomes.
Factors affecting terrestrial ecosystem are- (a) Moisture Water is important for growth of the plant because the nutrients required for the growth are supplied in a dissolved state from the roots to the leaves through the medium of water. Water, not only helps in the process of photosynthesis, but, also in germination, growth and reproduction of plants.
(b) Temperature Every plant along with moisture has optimum temperature requirement for germination, growth and reproduction. Plant growth ceases when temperature falls below 6 degree Celsius. In deserts, plants do not grow for the greater part of the year, due to excessive heat and scanty moisture. Variation in temperature and moisture reduces variations in species also.
(c) Soil It provides the medium for plant growth. Different types of soil, such as, alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, loamy soil, literate soil and sandy soil, all support different types of vegetation. For example, black soil is good for the cultivation of cotton.
(d) Relief and (e) Drainage are other factors determining the type of vegetation. In mountains vegetation varies with altitude.