What were the features of Religious Ideas and Rituals in the Vedic Age?

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People in the Vedic age were solely theists. They contemplated life and the world from the spiritual standpoint and had no scientific outlook. In the later-Vedic literature, the systems of Indian philosophy explained the creation of the world and its living beings on a scientific basis. But in the Vedic literature we find god and some invincible powers as the sole agents of creation and sustenance.

In the Atharvaveda time or Kala has been described as the originator of everything.

The Vedic Aryans believed in the concept of ‘One in many’. They worshipped various forces of nature, but at the same time believed in the basic unity of nature. The Vedic people worshipped many gods not because of the fear of natural phenomena but for gaining their favours.

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All the natural phenomena such as the sky, thunder, rain, air, etc. were believed to be guided by their presiding deities, while natural devastations were taken to be an expression of their wrath.

The hymns of the Rig-Veda were mainly sung for the glorification of the gods in order to appease them. God was regarded as the ruler, ordained of the period of life, protector of men and giver of happiness.

The religion of the Vedic Aryans was a form of nature worship. Natural phenomena were conceived as the expression of some spiritual beings – manifestations of various gods. For the different appearances of the sky different deities were imagined, such as Varuna, Indra, and Mitra, were the principal sky gods and Indra, among them, was conceived as the producer of rain.

Rain, thunder, cloud, morning and night were all mysteries – they were taken to be some ‘super¬≠natural powers’. This was the beginning of the process of personification by which natural phenomena were developed into gods. It led to the rise of myths. Most of these natural events were personified and thus the first mythology in the world was born.

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