There are four main types of Teaching Aids
1. Auditory Aids
These teaching aids act through ear for which peaceful and calm atmosphere is necessary. Ability to listen attentively should be foster among the students.
(i) The Gramophone
This teaching aid is used for different purposes. It is useful for the teaching of music and language. The lingua phone records can be used to teach language correctly particularly good pronunciation and speech. Teacher should be careful at the time of using Gramophone. He must introduce the students regarding the subject matter contains in the records. Students are to listen it carefully and note down the intricacies of music or language there in. Teachers should clarify the doubts and difficulties of the students afterward.
(ii) Tape Recorder:
Tape-recorder plays a key role as an auditory teaching aid in classroom situation. It has two functions one is to recording another is to cassette playing. A child can learn pronunciation perfectly through this aid. This can be used for learning music, songs and good programmes of important speeches, talks of scientific and historical importance.
Use of Radio-broadcasting in classroom situation is increasingly felt by the educationist now-a-days. Radio can bring the talks of experts in various subjects like science, mathematics, music, language and social-studies. Radio programme can supplement the teachers attempt to enrich the knowledge of students in different subjects. Teacher must be careful to introduce the radio talk before its commencement and clarify doubts of students after the talk. To make effective use of radio there should be close co-ordination between the schools and broadcasting authorities.
2. Visual Aids
(i) The chalk-board:
The chalk board or black-board is the most important teaching aid. It is used to note key points and words to draw the attention of the students. Diagrams and sketches especially in colored chalk add to the understanding of the students. Chalk board can be used to plan and workout projects in mathematics, social-studies, science and art. It can be used as and when necessary. Students note important points from it entered by the teachers at the time of teaching.
(ii) The flannel-board:
The flannel board is increasingly used by the teachers. It is a board covered with flannel, a soft loosely woven cloth of any color. The teacher prepares paper cutting pictures and pastes them on the sand papers on its back. Then he sets sand paper side on the flannel and exhibits the pictures one after another. It has important role to draw the attention of the students.
(iii) The Bulletin board:
It is one of the important teaching aids used frequently by the teachers. It is used as an aid to display interesting and important news, photographs, pictures etc. It draws attention of the students at the very entry to the school every day.
The models are three dimensional representations. This is meant to show the appearance of a real object through the perfect models. Preparation of model is an interesting activity for the students. Models are of different kinds/types. Diagrammatic model is to emphasize a selected feature. Scale models show the appearance of a real object. Display models are designed to represent structure characteristics. Cross-sectional models are used to highlight the inner-part of an object.
(v) Film strips:
It is a continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in sequence, usually with explanatory titles. Each strip contains from twenty five to one hundred picture or more with suitable copy. It is especially useful for lessons of developing or chronological nature. It has series of still pictures and any single picture can be displayed to any longer time for the explanation by the teachers.
3. Audio-Visual Aids
Audio-Visual aids influence the mind through the eyes and the ears.
Television is a sophisticated scientific audiovisual device. It has a great potential value for education. Various lessons and demonstrations duly illustrated by slides, models specimens etc. can be observed by the pupils and the teachers. Many important talks, scene and sights can be seen through it. Television brings world to home.
(ii) Sound motion pictures:
Films based on educational topics can be presented through the films. Films depict motion and continuity. This can bring past stories, incidents in to class room. The impact of film is very great on the students’ attitudes interest and opinions. Important topics of science, mathematics, environment, population growth, health care etc. can be shown to the students to bring awareness and improve knowledge.
4. Activity Aids
(I) Tour and Trips:
Tours and Trips are purposeful attempt to bring students to the spot to get first hand knowledge by direct viewing and sight seeing. It needs a perfect planning with a view to realize the objectives predetermined. Teachers should be active and acts as the guide to students for answering all their questions pertaining to the trips. The pupils may be asked to read the relevant materials from books or gather information about the place to be visited from various sources.
Demonstrations are active Endeavour to give visual explanations to important facts, ideas and processes. The children are not passive viewer but active demonstrations. There are different types of demonstration design in different subjects. Teachers are to give emphasis on their respective subjects to give accurate knowledge to the child. A music teacher is to demonstrate how to play on a musical instrument as like a mathematics teacher can demonstrate the steps involved in solving a particular type of problem.
Dramatization is very interesting lively and useful techniques of teaching. History can best taught by this. Students will get knowledge about costumes, manners, traditions and culture of the period dramatized. The learning takes place best in an emotional situation and dramatization provides that situation. In day-today teaching teacher can take the modulation, expressions of historical characters.
Teaching can be interesting and perfect if teachers will use appropriate teaching aids to supplement the teaching-learning situation. A good method of teaching with teaching aids makes the teaching resourceful and interesting.