Teaching Aids Used in Teaching: The teaching aids used in the teaching can be classified into the following ways:
(a) Traditional Aids: Blackboard/chalkboard, books, periodicals.
(b) Visual Aids: Objects, picture, map, figure, chart, posters, model, bulletin board, flannel board, globe, graph or any other type of graphics such as| diagrams, cut-outs, cartoons, etc.
(c) Mechanical Aids:
(i) Audio: Radio, tape recorder, teaching machine.
(ii)Visual: Projector, epidiascope, film strips, motion picture, etc. (iii) Audio-Visual: Films, television, video, cassettes, etc. Visual Material Aids: Use of Chart: The most commonly used types of charts include outline charts, tabular charts, flow charts and organization charts. Flip charts and flow charts are also being used.
Purposes of Charts: Charts serve the following purpose:
1. For showing relationship by means of facts, figures and statistics.
2. For presenting materials symbolically.
3. For summarizing information.
4. For showing continuity in process.
5. For presenting abstract ideas in visual form.
6. For showing development of structure.
7. For creating problems and stimulating thinking.
8. For encouraging utilization of other media of communication.
9. For motivating the students.
Use of Globe: Knowledge of map is unreal without the knowledge of globe – the true map. It is the true representative of earth’s physical personality. A globe gives a true idea of the total environment at a glance in a classroom situation. It is through globe that a child can understand the concepts of time, space, wind’s planetary relations and proportion. Hence, every school shall have globes. Four types of globes may be kept in every school:
(1) Political globes
(2) Physical globes
(3) Washable projection globes
(4) Celestial globes
Use of Overhead Projector (OHP):
Overhead projector is a device that can project a chart, a diagram, a map, a table or for that matter, anything written on transparent plates, upon a screen on the white wall before students in a class. This makes teaching illuminative, illustrative and impressive. It also saves a great deal of the teacher’s time used in drawing or writing. These transparencies can also be preserved by the teacher for future display while facing up the same topic. It is very simple to prepare such transparencies. All that a teacher has to do is to draw or write, as the case may be, upon transparent plates with any dark ink with a fibre tipped pen. Any material meant for display before the class while teaching can also be typed on such transparencies using a good carbon paper. In case transparencies are to be washed out for use, washable water colour can also be used for writing on the transparencies.
Use of Puppets:
Puppetry is one of the old and popular arts in India. The use of puppets has been very popular in China, Egypt, Greece and Japan. Puppets can serve as an effective aid to learning. They can be made to illustrate lessons in civics, geography, history and hygiene. Puppets throw a lot of light in an interesting way on the life of historical personages if they are accompanied by effective narration. There should be plenty of dancing and music in the display of puppetry. While presenting puppet programmes, the age and tastes of the pupils should be duly considered. A short puppet play is always preferable to a long play. Puppets are of three types:
(i) Hand puppets which fit in the hand like a glove and are operated from below by fingers.
(ii) Rod puppets which are operated from below the stage by a combination of rods and springs.
(iii) Marionettes or string puppets which are figures with moving limbs. These are operated from the above by means of strings.