Pressure groups can be broadly classified into the following categories
1) Business Groups
2) Labour Organisations
3) Farmers’ Groups
4) Professional Groups
5) Religious Groups Business Groups
Businessmen are generally well-organised and their concern would be to get reasonable restrictions imposed on the production and distribution of goods, import and export of commodities, determination of price of commodities, etc. There are business groups like the National Association of Manufacturers in the USA, the Federation of British Industries, the National Council of French Employers, the Federation of German Industry, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), etc.
In India the British merchants established the Chamber of commerce in 1830s. In 1926, it was decided to establish a national Indian business organisation. In the following year the same business organization became the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry. The support of the wealthy businessman like GD. Birla made this business group an important and influential force. In addition to the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry there are other national business groups namely the All-India Manufactures’ Organisation, the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India etc. These business groups keep in touch with political parties and contribute to party funds and some candidates in elections are financed by the businessmen. Labour Organisations
In the USA trade union politics began with the establishment of the American Federation of Labour in 1886. There are labour organizations like the communist dominated Confederation of Christian Trade Unions in France, German Confederation of Trade Unions, Transport and General Workers’ Union in England, Indian National Trade Union Congress, etc. The labour organizations are concerned with payment of adequate wages and emoluments, reasonable working hours and conditions of service, compensation in case of some accident, etc.
They are often associated with one party or the other. In India the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC), the United Trade Union Congress (UTUC), the Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS), All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh have links with political parties like the Congress (I), Communist parties, the Socialist Party, the BJP etc’.
All these trade unions are regarded as major Indian Labour Organisations concerned more with domestic policy issues and origin policy matters. Professional Organisations
Association, medical association, bar association, etc. are regarded as pressure groups based on their professions. The American Association of University Teachers, All-Iridia Federation of University and College Teachers’ Organisations; the American Bar Association, the Indian Political Science Association, the British Medical Association are some of the examples of professional pressure groups. Religious Organisations
Religious pressure groups generally attempt to protect the interest of a particular religion. In the USA, the National Council of Churches is a religious pressure group. The other religious pressure groups are the American Jewish Committee. American Jewish Congress, etc. In the Indian context, the caste and communal associations can be categorized as religious pressure groups. In Indian politics, caste associations are increasingly getting prominence and becoming very influential.