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1. After Brazil, India is the second largest producer of sugar cane in the world.

2. In 1960-61 U.P. and Bihar produced about 60% of the total amount produced. Today these states produce only 30% as the states in the south have increased their production.

3. Reasons for the concentration of the sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are:

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(а) Production of sugar cane is maximum here.

(b) Availability of coal from Jharkhand.

(c) Skilled and unskilled labour can be easily obtained as population is dense.

(d) Good railway facilities are available.

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(e) Kanpur is the chief marketing centre in North India.

4. Products of Sugar cane :

(a) Gur or Jaggery is obtained by boiling sugar cane juice.

(b) Khandsari (obtained by separating molasses from sucrose).

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5. By-Products of Sugar cane :

(a) Molasses-used in the manufacture of fertilizers, rum, plastic, power-alcohol.

(b) Bagasse is the residue of crushed cane and is used in the paper and cardboard industry.

(c) Press-Mud-used for making wax, shoe polish and carbon paper.

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(d) Sugar Juice is also used as a drink.

6. Other States producing sugar cane are :

Maharashtra – Nasik, Pune, Kolhapur

Andhra Pradesh – Vijayawada, Hyderabad

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Tamil Nadu – Madurai, Tiruchirapalli

Punjab – Amritsar

7. Problems faced by Sugar cane growers of

North India :

(a) Price of sugar cane is fixed by government so farmers are dissatisfied.

(b) Industry is seasonal in character as sugar cane is available only at the time of harvest and the crushing season is short. Therefore, cost of production is high.

(c) Quality of cane is poor and sugar content is low. If not crushed within 24 hours the juice dries up.

(d) Worn-out machinery leads to wastage.

(e) There are great distances between the factories and the fields. Therefore, transport increases the cost of production.

8. Reasons for the shifting of the Sugar Industry to the South are :

(а) Geographical conditions are more suitable in the south.

(б) Black or Regur Soil is ideal for the cultivation of sugar cane as there is no water logging due to good drainage.

(c) Plenty of water is available either by rain or irrigation.

{d) Sugar cane farms are bigger and managed by

co-operatives, (e) Factories are close to the fields so no time is wasted in transportation.

9. To bring about increase in the production of sugar cane Research Centres have been opened at Lucknow and Coimbatore to evolve better quality of cane, canes which ripen at different times and to make the maximum use of by-products to reduce the cost of sugar.

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