Notes on Three Processes of Population Change

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Notes on Three Processes of Population Change

i. There are three main processes of population change.

ii. They are:

  • Birth rates
  • Death rates and
  • Migration.

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Natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.

i. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

ii. It is a major component of growth in India because birth rates have always been higher than death rates here.

iii. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

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iv. Main cause of rapid rate of growth of the Indian population is the fast decline in death rates.

Till 1980, high birth rates and declining death rates led to a large difference between birth rates and death rates.

It resulted in higher rates of population growth.

After 1981, birth rates have also started declining gradually. It has resulted in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.

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The reasons for this trend are:

i. Most of the people especially in urban areas have adopted two children norms.

ii. Birth rate has also seen sharp decline.

iii. Standard of living has increased considerably.

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iv. Womenfolk are more conscious of their health.

v. Family welfare schemes are being adopted in a big way.

vi. Muslim population has also started to keep the family small.

Migration is the third component of population growth:

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i. It is the movement of people across regions and territories.

ii. It is both internal and international.

  • Internal migration is the movement of people from one region to another within the country.
  • International migration is the movement of people from one to another country.
  • Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the country.
  • Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population
  • In India most migration are from rural to urban areas because of the push factors. They include.

a. Adverse condition of poverty.

b. Unemployment in the rural areas.

  • The pull factors of the city include.

a. Increased employment opportunities.

b. Better living conditions.

  • Migration decides the population change in a big way. They change both population size and population composition in term of urban and rural populations and in terms of age and sex composition.

In India rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of urban population.

Urban population has increased from 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951 to 27.78% in 2001.

There has been a significant increase in the number of million plus cities from 23 in 1991 to 35 in 2001 (a period of just 10 years-a decade).

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